Colon Polyp Removal Surgery in India
Colon Polyp Removal
As many as 30 percent of middle-aged and older adults have one or more colon polyps — a small clump of cells that forms on the colon lining. Although the great majority of colon polyps are harmless, some may become cancerous over time. Anyone can develop colon polyps, but you’re at higher risk if you are 50 or older, are overweight or a smoker, eat a high-fat, low-fiber diet, or have a personal or family history of colon polyps or colon cancer….
Colon polyps range from smaller than a pea to golf ball sized.
- Rectal bleeding. You might notice bright red blood on toilet paper after you’ve had a bowel movement. Although this may be a sign of colon polyps or colon cancer, rectal bleeding can indicate other conditions, such as hemorrhoids or minor tears (fissures) in your anus….
- Blood in your stool. Blood can show up as red streaks in your stool or make bowel movements appear black. Still, a change in color doesn’t always indicate a problem — iron supplements and some anti-diarrhea medications can make stools black, whereas beets and red licorice can turn stools red….
- Constipation or diarrhea. Although a change in bowel habits that lasts longer than a week may indicate the presence of a large colon polyp, it can also result from a number of other conditions….
- Pain or obstruction. Sometimes a large colon polyp may partially obstruct your bowel, leading to crampy abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and severe constipation….
Your digestive tract stretches from your mouth to your anus. As food travels along this 30-foot passageway, nutrients are broken down and absorbed by your body to build cells and produce energy….
Why polyps form
The majority of polyps aren’t cancerous (malignant), yet like most cancers, they result from abnormal cell growth. Healthy cells grow and divide in an orderly way — a process that’s controlled by two broad groups of genes….
There are three main types of colon polyps : –
- Adenomatous. Once adenomatous polyps grow beyond the size of a pencil eraser — about 5 millimeters (mm), or 1/4 inch — there’s a small but increasing chance that they’ll become cancerous. This is especially true when their diameter exceeds 10 mm. For that reason, doctors normally take a tissue sample (biopsy) from polyps during a sigmoidoscopy and either biopsy or remove large polyps during a colonoscopy….
- Hyperplastic. These polyps occur most often in your left (descending) colon and rectum. Usually less than 5 mm in size, they’re rarely malignant….
- Inflammatory. These polyps may follow a bout of ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease of the colon. Although the polyps themselves are not a significant threat, having ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease of the colon increases your overall risk of colon cancer….
Inherited gene mutations
Another risk factor for colon polyps is genetic mutations. A small percentage of colon cancers result from gene mutations. These cancers are autosomal dominant, meaning you need to inherit only one defective gene from either of your parents. If one parent has the mutated gene, you have a 50 percent chance of inheriting the mutation…..
Conditions related to APC gene defects include : –
- Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). This is a rare, hereditary disorder that results from an APC gene defect. FAP causes you to develop hundreds, even thousands, of polyps in the lining of your colon beginning in your teenage years. If these go untreated, your risk of developing colon cancer is nearly 100 percent….
- Gardner’s syndrome. This syndrome is a variant of FAP. This condition causes polyps to develop throughout your colon and small intestine. You may also develop noncancerous tumors in other parts of your body, including your skin (sebaceous cysts and lipomas), bone (osteomas) and abdomen (desmoids)….
- Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). This is the most common form of inherited colon cancer. It, too, results from a defect in the APC gene, but unlike people with FAP or Gardner’s syndrome, people with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer tend to develop relatively few colon polyps….
Treatments and drugs
Although some types of colon polyps are far more likely to become malignant than are others, a pathologist usually must examine a polyp under a microscope to determine whether it’s potentially cancerous. For that reason, your doctor is likely to remove all polyps discovered during a bowel examination….
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