Cerebral Stroke

Incidence of Cerebral Stroke:

Every year around 1 % of people within the age group of 60 years to 65 years suffer from Paralysis because of Cerebral stroke. Below the age of 40 years occurrence of Cerebral stroke is negligible.

Causes of Cerebral Stroke:

Cerebral Stroke is caused by break down of blood supply to a part of brain. If for a small moment supply of blood to a part of brain gets stopped, that part of brain stops to function, which may result into speech disorder, a state of unconsciousness, or a serious problem of Paralysis or Coma in the affected person.

The break down of blood supply can be because of:

1. Brain hemorrhage: By sudden rupture of a blood vessel in the Brain causing severe blood loss and damage to the affected region of the Brain resulting into non functioning of the organ controlled by the affected region of brain. the brain.

2. Thrombosis: Thrombosis is coagulation of blood in a blood vessel. Since the blood is in liquid state circulating in the blood vessels net work in the whole body. The coagulated mass of blood causes Clogging of very small diameter blood vessel of the brain by a clot formation. The affected part of the brain does not get the blood supply resulting into regional damage of the brain also   impairing  the functions of the organ controlled by the affected region of the brain.

a) brain hemorrhage:

10 % to 15 % of the Stroke Patients suffer from hemorrhage. It is a very serious condition and fatal in 25 to 50 %. This requires immediate consultation from a Specialized Neuro Physician. High Blood pressure is the main cause of hemorrhage in 75 % of the patients besides this malformation of the blood vessel, local inflammation of the blood vessel, conditions like hemophilia or Brain Injury.

b) Thrombosis:

80 % of the stroke patients suffer from thrombosis. It can be because of Diabetes, hypertension, High cholesterol in blood, Heavy smoking, sedentary habits. Because of this the vessels get constricted and deposit of thrombus causes blockage. Rheumatic heart disease patients are also prone to suffer.

Symptoms:

Prior to the attack following symptoms are encountered like loss of vision, weakness of limbs and unconsciousness. As suddenly these symptoms are noticed they disappear also within few minutes or an hour the patient becomes alright, but these initial symptoms should not be overlooked. If treated in time Cerebral Stroke can be prevented.

Prior to blockage of blood vessels patient experiences headache for some time and thereafter Cerebral Stroke occurs. during sleep and patient finds some part of the body is paralyzed and unconsciousness prevails. In some cases speech is lost. 10 % patients have different symptoms like severe Headache, Vertigo, Vomiting and also may see Two objects instead of one.

In contrast on the other hand in the case of Cerebral Stroke on account of hemorrhage is sudden, when the patient is fully conscious and doing some work. The patient instantaneously goes into coma.

Investigations:

The patient should be immediately admitted in a hospital and put under the supervision of a Neuro Physician. Patients laboratory investigations like Blood Sugar, Urea, Electrolytes, ECG and CT Scan should be carried out to find the cause of Cerebral Stroke.

Treatment:

First 48 to 72 hours are very critical. Neurological advice should be taken based on the investigation findings and treatment started. Blood Pressure should be controlled and medication given for resolution of the thrombus from the blood vessel. Patient should be put on exercises in consultation with the Physiotherapist so that the affected part is rejuvenated.

Precautions:

It is necessary that Hypertension, Blood Sugar and Cholesterol is kept under control. Regular treatment should be carried out if the patient is suffering from Hypertension or having Cardiac involvement also.

Summary:

1. Cerebral Stroke patient has to take the medicines through out life so that there is o No relapse.

2. It can take months or years for complete recovery, which is a slow process.

3. Patient should be advised to do normal work.

4. Long Period of disease may leave some residual defects, which can be reduced by regular exercise.