Bronchiectasis -definition Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Bronchiectasis – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment
Definition
Bronchiectasis is specify as a chronic dilation of bronchi or as a continuation of inflammatory disease or obstruction.It is an anomalistic stretching and enlarging of the respiratory passages caused by mucus hindrance . When the body is not having sufficient power to get rid of mucus, mucus becomes fixed and pile up in the airways & spilling over to adjacent branching tubes.
This results a change in the lining of the airways. The airways become wrenched out of normal shape and enlarged. Enlargement can be uniform or irregular. The mucus is hard to comprehend to clear because of the impairment to the normal ways the airways clear the mucus. A person may be born with bronchiectasis or may get it later in life as a result of another disorder. The disease, left without any treatment will continue to scathe lung tissue & bronchial tubes and cause emphysema and severe breathing difficulties.
Causes
There are two types of bronchiectasis:

  • Congenital bronchiectasis: Which generally affects infants and children. It leads to a problem in the development of the lungs in the fetus.

  • Acquired bronchiectasis: Which occurs in adults and older children. It is more common.

Bronchiectasis may caused by harsh lung infections such as pneumonia, tuberculosis & fungal infections, abnormal lung defenses, and obstruction of the airway by a foreign body or tumor are some of the predisposing factors.
Bronchiectasis may be existing at birth, but most often begins in childhood as a ramification from infection or inhaling a foreign object .It is generally caused by recurrent inflammation or infection of the airways.
There are some causes of having Bronchiectasis are:

  • Symptoms that affect the function of the cilia .

  • Blockage in the airways because of a growth or tumor.

  • Bronchiectasis may exist by inhalation of oral or stomach material into the lungs.

  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease develops when the valve or sphincter having a connection
    to the esophagus and stomach is too relaxed.

  • Having chronic lung symptoms, such as cystic fibrosis( where the mucus in the bronchial tubes is too thick), allergic aspergillosis,& other mycobacterial diseases such as MAI, whooping cough , an immune deficiency disease or severe or repeated episodes pneumonia .

Symptoms
The most common symptoms of Bronchiectasis are:

  • Excess cough daily, over months or years.
  • Regular production of large amounts of mucus.
  • Repeated lung symptoms.
  • Wheezing.
  • Difficulty in breath.
  • Wheezing .
  • Pain in the chest .
  • Weight loss .
  • Paleness .
  • Fatigue .
  • Sinus drainage.
  • Coughing up blood .
  • Clubbing .
  • Skin discoloration.

There may exceptionally be additional disorders of associated conditions, for example bloody diarrhoea from ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and infertility . The doctor may hear sharp noises in the chest due to retained mucus.
Treatments
Antibiotics can be use to treat infections,prescribed at regular periods or continuously, by intravenous or inhaled routes. It is prescribed to wear appropriate clothing for varying temperatures to avoid weather-related illness.
There are few treatments available if bronchiectasis is early detect & is localized to a single area of the lung which could be removed without impairing breathing, then removal by operation is one cure.Anti-asthma is act as a remedy which improves the airflow through the bronchial tubes.
Nasal drops and sprays can act as a treatment of nose or sinus infection and runny nose.Oral, parenteral, and aerosolized antibiotics can be used, depending on the medical situation.
For person with high to low symptoms, parenteral antibiotics, such as an aminoglycoside and an antipseudomonal synthetic penicillin, a fluoroquinolone, may be recommended.
Intake of drugs such as albuterol and flovent may help to ebb likelihood of infection by clearing the airways and abate inflammation.