Brain Tumors Surgery In India
A tumor is any mass caused by abnormal or uncontrolled growth of cells. They can be benign (noncancerous, meaning that they do not spread elsewhere or invade surrounding tissue) or malignant (cancerous). Cancerous brain tumors are further classified as either primary or secondary tumors. Primary tumors start in the brain, whereas secondary tumors spread to the brain from another site such as the breast or lung…..
The term “benign” refers to a condition, tumor, or growth that is not cancerous. This means that it does not spread to other parts of the body or destroy nearby tissue. Benign tumors usually grow slowly. If a benign tumor is big enough, its size and weight can press on nearby blood vessels, nerves, or organs, or otherwise cause problems…..
Types of Brain Tumor
A ] Acoustic neurinoma : –
Benign tumor occurring in the 8th cranial nerve (the acoustic nerve) between the pons and the cerebellum…
B ] Astrocytomas : –
represent the most common type of glioma. They develop from the supporting cells of the brain, which are star-shaped glial cells called astrocytes….
C ] Oligodendroglioma : –
These are tumours that are made up of cells known as oligodendrocytes, which produce the fatty covering of nerve cells…
D ] Ependymoma : –
Tumor arising from the ependymal cells found along the ventricles and central canal of the spinal cord……
E ] Brain stem glioma : —
the tumor occurs in the lowest part of the brain. Brain stem gliomas most often are diagnosed in young children and middle-aged adults….
F ] Craniopharyngioma : –
This is a benign, congenital tumor. It is cystic and occurs primarily in children and adolescents……
G ] Medulloblastoma : —
This tumor usually arises in the cerebellum. It is the most common brain tumor in children. It is sometimes called a primitive neuroectodermal tumor…..
H ] Meningioma : –
Benign tumor arising from the meninges, the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. Meningiomas represent approximately 20% of all primary brain tumors and occur most commonly in middle-aged women……
I ] Germ cell tumor of the brain : —
The tumor arises from a germ cell. Most germ cell tumors that arise in the brain occur in people younger than 30……
J ] The pineal gland is just below the area where the two cerebral hemispheres join. Tumours in this part of the brain are extremely rare. They can be made up of different types of cells…..
Primary Malignant Tumor
Tumors that begin in brain tissue are known as primary brain tumors. Although primary brain tumors often shed cancerous cells to other sites in the central nervous system (the brain or spine), they rarely spread to other parts of the body……
Secondary Malignant Tumor
When cancer cells spread to the brain from another organ (such as the lung or breast), is called as a secondary tumor or metastatic tumor. Secondary tumors in the brain are far more common than primary brain tumors……
Causes of Brain Tumors
The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. This is because they are rare, there are many types, and there are many possible risk factors that could play a role. Exposure to some types of radiation, head injuries, and hormone replacement therapy may be risk factors, as well as many others. The risk of using cell phones is hotly debated……
Symptoms of Brain Tumor
The most common symptoms include headaches, which can be most severe in the morning; nausea or vomiting, which can be most severe in the morning; seizures or convulsions…..
Diagnosis of Brain Tumors
A ] MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) is a scanning device that uses magnetic fields and computers to capture images of the brain on film…..
B ] CT Scan (Computed Tomography) combines sophisticated x-ray and computer technology. CT can show a combination of soft tissue, bone, and blood vessels…..
C ] PET SCAN: – The PET scan measures the brains activity and sends this information to a computer, which creates a live image…..
D ] Biopsy : –The removal of tissue to look for tumor cells is called a biopsy. A pathologist looks at the cells under a microscope to check for abnormal cells…..
The surgery options of Brain Tumor are : –
- Tumor Surgery
- Radiation Therapy………
Surgery for Brain Tumor
Treatment of a brain tumor depends on its location and type. When possible, the tumor is removed surgically. Some brain tumors can be removed with little or no damage to the brain. Surgery is the treatment of choice for accessible primary brain tumors, when the patient is in good health. To remove a brain tumor, a neurosurgeon makes an opening in the skull. This operation is called a craniotomy.
The procedure is performed under general anesthesia and involves opening the skull (cranium). The neurosurgeon makes an incision into the scalp and several holes (called burr holes) are made in the skull. A bone saw is used to join the holes together to create a flap of bone. The bone flap is then removed to expose the brain and remove as much of the tumor as possible……
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