Cardiac care has become a speciality in India They combine the latest innovations in medical electronics with unmatched expertise in leading cardiologists and cardo-thoracic surgeons. These centres have the distinction of providing comprehensive cardiac care spanning from basic facilities in preventive cardiology to the most sophisticated curative technology. The technology is contemporary and world class and the volumes handled match global benchmarks. They also specialise in offering surgery to high risk patients with the introduction of innovative techniques like minimally invasive and robotic surgery. Renowned Indian cardiac hospitals are equipped to handle all phases of heart diseases from the elementary to the latest clinical procedures like interventional cardiac catherisation and surgical cardiac transplants. Their success rate at an average of 98.50% is at par with leading cardiac centres around the world. Leading heart centres have cardiac care units with sophisticated equipment and investigative facilities like echocardiography with coloured Doppler, nuclear scanning and coronary angiography.
What is an Atrial Septal Defect?
The heart is divided into four separate chambers. The upper chambers, or atria, are divided by a wall called the septum. An atrial septal defect (ASD) is a hole in that septum. Atrial septal defects are one of the most common heart defects seen. When an atrial septal defect is present, blood flows through the hole primarily from the left atrium to the right atrium. This shunting increases the blood volume in the right atrium, which means more blood flows through the lungs than would normally. If left untreated, atrial septal defect may cause problems in adulthood. These problems may include pulmonary hypertension (which is high blood pressure in the lungs), congestive heart failure (weakening of the heart muscle), atrial arrhythmias (which are abnormal rhythms or beating of the heart) and an increased risk of stroke.
What Causes an Atrial Septal Defect?
ASDs occur during a baby’s development in the mother’s womb and are present at birth. Before birth, the heart develops from a large tube, dividing into sections that will eventually become its walls and chambers. If a problem occurs during this process, a hole in the wall that divides the left atrium from the right may result. For most people with an ASD, no one knows exactly why it happens. In some cases, the tendency to develop an ASD may be inherited, or genetic.
Types of Atrial Septal Defects:
There are many types of atrial septal defects. They are differentiated from each other by whether they involve other structures of the heart and how they are formed during the developmental process during early fetal development.
Ostium secundum Atrial Septal Defect:
The ostium secundum atrial septal defect is the most common type of atrial septal defect, and comprises 6-10% of all congenital heart diseases. The secundum atrial septal defect usually arises from an enlarged foramen ovale, inadequate growth of the septum secundum, or excessive absorption of the septum primum. 10 to 20 percent of individuals with ostium secundum ASDs also have mitral valve prolapse.
Ostium primum Atrial Septal Defect:
The ostium primum atrial septal defect (also known as an endocardial cushion defect) is a defect in the atrial septum at the level of the tricuspid and mitral valves. This is sometimes known as an endocardial cushion defect because it often involves the endocardial cushion, which is the portion of the heart where the atrial septum meets the ventricular septum and the mitral valve meets the tricuspid valve.
Endocardial cushion defects are associated with abnormalities of the atrioventricular valves (the mitral valve and the tricuspid valve). These include the cleft mitral valve, and the single atrioventricular valve (a single large, deformed valve that flows into both the right ventricle and the left ventricle). Endocardial cushion defects are the most common congenital heart defect that is associated with Down’s syndrome.
Sinus venosus Atrial Septal Defect:
A sinus venosus ASD is a type of atrial septum defect in which the defect in the septum involves the venous inflow of either the superior vena cava or the inferior vena cava. A sinus venosus ASD that involves the superior vena cava makes up 2 to 3% of all intraatrial communications. It is located at the junction of the superior vena cava and the right atrium. It is frequently associated with anomalous drainage of the right-sided pulmonary veins into the right atrium (instead of the normal drainage of the pulmonary veins into the left atrium).
What does the surgical repair for Atrial Septal Defect involve?
Atrial Septal Defect is most commonly closed by open-heart surgery. Due to worsening of symptoms with age, children suffering from atrial septal defect should be operated upon between 3 – 6 years of age. The term open-heart surgery is used for surgical procedures performed on the heart where the heart is stopped and is connected to a heart-lung machine, which oxygenates the blood and circulates it throughout the body. The surgeon makes an incision in the middle of the chest through the breast bone (sternotomy) to expose the heart. The heart is stopped and its function is completely taken over by the heart-lung machine. The atrial septal defect is either stitched (if small) or patched with a special mesh to close the hole. Once the procedure is complete, the heart is re-started and the chest incision is sutured. The open-heart surgery to correct atrial septal defect is considered a major surgery and is performed under general anesthesia.
After surgery of Atrial Septal Defect Surgery:
After ASD surgery, child will spend a few days in the intensive care unit or in a regular hospital room. Most children go home within 4 days after the surgery. While in the hospital, child will be given medicines to reduce pain or anxiety as needed. The doctors and nurses at the hospital will teach patient how to care for him at home.
They will talk to patient about:
·Avoiding blows to the chest incision as it heals
·Limiting activity for patientr child while he or she recovers
·Returning to school
·Scheduling follow-up appointments with patientr child’s doctors
·Administering medicine to patientr child at home, if needed
Outcomes of Atrial Septal Defect Surgery:
Surgical closure of atrial septal defects is complication free in over 99 percent of cases. Although the Amplatzer device has only been utilized for several years, its success rate also appears to be very high. After ASD closure in childhood, the heart size returns to normal over a period of four to six months. Following closure of an atrial septal defect, there should be no problems with physical activity and no restrictions. Regular follow-up appointments will be made with a cardiologist.
Why travel to India for Atrial Septal Defect Surgery:
Cardiology in India is a well-developed field, with treatments ranging from coronary angiography, angioplasty and bypass surgery to grafting being offered at the premier super specialty hospitals in India. They arrange and offer all such treatments at the premier hospitals in India. The Cardiac Centers in India offers the latest in terms of cardiac treatments, including surgery, medication and pre and postoperative care. Apart from state of the art cardiac treatments, the hospitals also offer regular check ups to prevent heart disease, or check the disease in the initial stages. Heart disease is increasingly a bane of the Western world, as well as developing countries, including India. With changing dietary habits and sedentary lifestyles, cardiac diseases now number among the leading causes of death of people worldwide. Keeping this in mind we have tied with the leading Cardiac Centers of India to offer medical tourists facilities ranging from echocardiography, stress testing and holter monitoring to electrophysiological studies, arrhythmia ablation and implantation of single and double chamber pacemakers.
To know more about affordable and low cost atrial septal defect surgery in India-please visit the Website => http://www.forerunnershealthcare.com
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