There are two types of diabetes, type one and type two. Diabetes is the leading cause of blindness in adults and untreated it can lead to nerve damage and amputation, as well as vision problems. In men, it can lead to erectile dysfunction, as well as leading cause of hypertension – adults with diabetes are 50% more likely to develop higher blood pressure. Diabetes is a condition in which the pancreas decrees the rate in which insulin is produced and blood glucose levels become too high, or too low. Diet and exercise or treatments of injections or oral tablets of insulin can maintain a normal blood glucose level.
Type-one diabetes includes symptoms such as excessive thirst, weight loss, fatigue and frequent urination and an increase in appetite.
The second type of diabetes, type-two diabetes has some of the same symptoms as type 1 diabetes but also more severe symptoms as skin and bladder infections as well as blurred vision or tingling in the legs, arms and extremities. Type-two diabetes is more common and can occur without any symptoms at all. Type-two diabetes is often referred to as type-two diabetes. Interestingly enough, forty percent of the people with type-two diabetes can change the prognosis of the disease through diet and exercise.
Those over the age of forty-five should have their blood sugar tested every three months. Those under the age of forty five with significant risk factors should have annual tests as well. A simple visit to your family physician to ask for a lab test for blood glucose levels can yield blood glucose levels. Many lab tests for glucose require fast for eight hours to receive accurate results. Most of these, these tests are included with physical exams, and should be completed at least once per year.
Those at highest risk for diabetes are those who are; overweight, having given birth to a large baby, those with previous abnormal glucose levels or those who are over the age of forty five.
Drug therapies differ between type-one and type-two diabetes. Drug therapies used for type one diabetes patients include; insulin pens and insulin injections. There are four types of insulin injections, short acting, long acting, rapid acting and intermediate acting. Insulin pens are more convenient than traditional syringes and are favored by more patients diagnosed with diabetes than the traditional syringes. Depending on the history of the patient and the reaction that the body has with the insulin, short or long acting insulin will be prescribed by the health care professional.
There are many other treatment options available for those diagnosed with type-two diabetes. These include oral medications, or specific diet and exercise regimens. Alpha glucosidase inhibitors slow the absorption of carbohydrates within the blood stream and the small intestines and assist in lowering the blood sugar. Meglitinide is a new course of medications that encourage the pancreas to produce and secret insulin, thereby lowering the blood sugar. As an alternative to these chemical medications, oral medications, the more traditional type of type-two diabetes management are most prescribed by doctors in North America.