Anxiety and Adjustment Disorders

Anxiety is the automatic body’s response to alleged risk. While anxiety disorders emanates from overwhelming perceived threats. We often worry and get tensed when responding to or anticipating a stressful situation. The optimistic side of anxiety is that it aid us to stay focused, motivated and spur us to conquer challenging jargons. However, when nervousness graduates to be constant and irresistible and becomes a setback in your daily performance it is referred as an anxiety disorder. The apparent symptoms of generalized anxiety disorders (GAD) are fatigue, nausea, muscle weakness and heart palpitations. This topic will carefully examine similarities and differences of anxiety disorders and adjustment disorders in references to a case study of an edgy electrician. The paper will be of great significance to learners who will be armed in dealing with anxiety disorders.

Adjustment disorder is caused by poignant and behavioral changes that alter sound functioning of a person due to stressful changes experienced in a paradigm shift of his/her life. The most common similarity between anxiety disorders and adjustment disorders are both victims encounter stress, worry, significant anxiety and loss of attentiveness. More so, both disorders can develop as a result of genetic influence commonly known as family history and both escalate due to stressful life and changes in occurrences (Casey, 2001). Although these disorders relates with some shared causes and symptoms they are essentially relatively different. Their largest variation exists in their symptoms, where adjustment disorder victims’ symptoms are portrayed in times of change or stress. While patients suffering from generalized anxiety disorders experience extreme worries and anxiety in an array of stuffs. In some instances a patient can have both disorders making generalized anxiety disorder severe due to adjustment and alteration of things. For example in this case study the electrician seems to be worrying much about his parent health and how his wife extrapolates him in regard to family affairs. This worries have be made worse by a feeling of disconnection from co-workers on his job and nervousness associated with it. His signs are a clear indication of presence of general anxiety and adjustment disorders. But further diagnosis need to be carried to determine if he suffers from adjustment disorder. We shall apply five-axis diagnostic system to effectively eradicate through classification of all disorders and illness he is experiencing (Casey, 2001).

Axis I- 293.84 Anxiety Disorder due to heart palpitations, dizziness and sweating palms

  • 308.3 Acute Stress Disorder

Axis II – deferred

Axis III – No signs requiring this diagnosis.

Axis IV – 309.24 Adjustment Disorder with Anxiety

  • V71.01 Adult Antisocial Behavior

Axis V – 30: Behavior is considerably influenced by delusions or hallucinations

The first one will be Axis I diagnosis that includes diagnosing clinical disorders, learning and developmental disorders. In our case we are going to diagnose generalized anxiety disorder while relying on clinical judgment. We shall assess longevity of excessiveness of anxiety and worry for a particular situation, inability to control the worries and if the symptoms are not part of another mental disorder. Since our patients experience irritability, concentration problem, fatigued and feeling restless this is a sure way of presence of GAD (Bronish, & Hecht, 1989). Our patient is affected by his family background as his parents’ health and wife relationship disturbs his mind frequently.

The second diagnosis that is Axis II diagnosis entails personality disorders and mental retardation. This is going to be deferred as it cannot be diagnosed simultaneously with Axis one diagnosis. Even though disorders associate with it are not present in this case. Hence, the need to go to Axis III diagnosis that is reserved for medical or physical conditions like Mitral Valve Prolapse and hyperthyroidism hence not applicable in our case as there is no any such signs. To determine if patient experiences legal problems, social issues, lack of an adequate support system and other psychosocial and environmental problems we are going to use Axis IV diagnosis. The factors present in our case are occupational problems articulated by his worries in regards to relationship between him and co-workers. This scenario calls for thorough axis IV diagnosis through elaborate subjective and objective process to determine whether this state is the epicenter of all the anxieties (Barlow, 2002).

To give a psychiatrist a complete diagnosis the axis V diagnosis must be carried out for vivid outlining of factors influencing anxiety and adjustment disorders. This popularly known as global assessment functioning that is an overall rating of patient’s performance in his daily occupational, social and activities operation. In electrician’s case, it is true to state that he has moderate difficulty in social occupational function as he confesses to have few social contacts. Also diagnosed is his unfounded worries influenced by delusions and hallucinations.

Ethnicity and background may affects diagnosis through lack of cooperation especially when the mater touches on confidentially family affairs. Some cultural beliefs prohibits one from exposing family history, hence, it becomes very difficult to deal with such a patient.