One of the method which is used in hernia repair is surgery that consists in a single long incision made in the groin. There are two types of hernia repairs the first is a direct hernia when the hernia is bulging out of the abdominal wall and the bulge is pushed back into place and the other called indirect hernia when the hernia sac is tied off and removed or pushed back because the hernia is going down the inguinal canal.
Herniorghraphy is the common procedure used in hernia repair and it consists in the sewing the edges of healthy muscle tissue together when in the muscle wall is the weak spot, the place where the hernia bulges through. This procedure is used for smaller hernias that can be present since birth and for healthy tissues. In this case can be possible that stitches without adding stress on the tissue can be used. The surgical approach can be different because it depends the area of muscle wall that is repaired and the surgeon’s preference.
Hernioplasty is another procedure to repair hernias which use the mesh patches of synthetic material like: Gore-Tex, Teflon, Dacron, Marlex or Prolene. This method is used in cases when hernias recur and in large hernias. After the hernia is pushed back into place the patches are sewn over the weakened area in the abdominal wall. The risk that make a hernia to recur can be reduced by the patch that decreases the tension on the weakened abdominal wall. Generally the adults with open surgery for hernia repair can return to normal activities after a recovery period that can be the 4 weeks. This period can vary from person to person.
For inguinal hernias is recommended surgical repair. Usually for repairing inguinal hernia at the infants and children is used open surgery because it is safe. When the surgeons with experience use the mesh patches in open hernia repair the recurrence rate is low. Nowadays in open and laparoscopic surgery are used for hernia repair synthetic patches. After open surgery the chance that the hernia to recur is from 1% to 7% for an indirect hernia and from 4% to 10% for a direct hernia.
Usually an inguinal hernia or hernia surgery not affect the sexual function. There is the possibility at males that surgery or an incarcerated hernia can cause injury to the vas deferens which is the tub that carries sperm from the testicles to the urethra. The blood vessels that supply one or both testicles with blood, which may cause the affected testicles to shrink, rarely, can be injured by surgery or an incarcerated hernia. At the healthy children with hernia repair may appear some risks. So a child younger than one year must be checked by the surgeon to see if he has a hernia on the other side of the groin and if there is one must be repaired immediately, so can be avoided the risks of a second surgery.
At males with this practice are put both testicles at risk at the same time. Also can be problems repaired at the same time to avoid the risks of a second surgery at males with hydrocele and hernia. During the surgery at the premature babies can be at risk for heart and lung complication. At adults and children with hernia repair are the following risks: reaction to anesthesia, infection and bleeding at the site, nerve damage, numbness of skin, loss of blood supply to scrotum or testicles resulting in testicular atrophy, damage to the cord that carries sperm from the testicles to the penis resulting in an inability to father children and damage to the femoral artery or vein.
To reduce the risk of complications before surgery some people need specially preparation like: smokers, those with a history of blood clots in large blood vessels, those which take large doses of aspirin and those which take anticoagulation medicines like warfarin or heparin. At adults of all ages and healthy children inguinal hernia repair surgery is done on an outpatient basis and the surgery takes one hours. For the people with unusual recurrent hernias, very large hernias, hernias on both sides and severe illness like as heart or lung disease or who take anticoagulant medicines sometimes is recommended in-patient surgery. Infants with lung problems like bronchopulmonary dysplasia, seizure disorders, congenital heart disease and premature birth or the need for a breathing machine must be hospitalized for hernia surgery.
Many people, infants and children suffer by hiatus hernia but fortunately they can be healed by experienced surgeons through surgical repair.
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