Kidney stone removal has four procedures/methods:
1. Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy (ESWL)
Kidney stone removal of ESWL uses non-electrical shock waves that are produced out of the body to pass through the skin and body tissues until the shockwaves hit the solid stones. The stones turn out to be sand-like and are passed.
For removal of this procedure, patient acre located in a tub of warm, purified water or onto water cushion machine that operates as a means for passing on these non-electrical shockwaves.
2. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PNL)
Different from removal method mentioned above, Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is regularly utilized when the stone is very large or in a place that does not permit effectual use of ESWL.
In this procedure of kidney stone removal, the surgeon makes an insignificant incision in the back and makes a tunnel immediately into the kidney. By means of an instrument called a nephroscope, the stone is positioned and removed. For large stones, an energy probe (ultrasonic or electrohydraulic) perhaps required to break down the stone into smaller pieces for removal.
The benefit of this procedure over lithotripsy is the physical removal of the stone fragments rather than relying on their natural passage from the kidney to the outside.
3. Ureteroscopic Stone Removal
Ureteroscopic stone removal is accomplished by passing a small fiberoptic instrument (an ureteroscope) through the urethra and bladder into the ureter. The surgeon afterward locates the stone and either removes it with a cage-like tool or breaks it with a particular instrument that creates a form of shockwave. A small tube (or stent) possibly left in the ureter for more than a few days after treatment to assist the lining of the ureter to heal.
This removal procedure is operated under common anesthesia to treat stones found in the middle and lower ureter. Small stones are removed and large stones are broken by a laser or similar device.
4. Open (incisional) Surgery
This last removal method includes opening the affected area and removing the stone(s). In this procedure, run in an operating room after a person has been given anesthesia, the surgeon creates an incision in the skin and unlocks the pelvis of the kidney or the ureter in order that the stone can be manually removed. Since open surgery is a principal operation, healing may need four to six weeks.