What Is Cataract?

The term cataract comes from the Greek word katarraktes (down rushing; waterfall) because earlier it was thought that the cataract was a congealed fluid from the brain that had flowed in front of the lens.

Our eye is like a camera. The lens focuses the light rays coming through the pupil onto the retina or back side of the eye. The different parts of the retina collect this light and send a massage to our brain then we can see.

For perfect vision the lens should be clear, so that light can pass through it and reach the retina. When the lens becomes cloudy or opaque, light can not pass through it and vision becomes dim or blurred. A cloudy lens is called cataract.


  • Sensitive to Sunlight (Photophobia).
  • Cloudy, fuzzy, foggy, or filmy vision.
  • Difficulty in seeing at night or in dim light.
  • Monocular diplopia.
  • Problems seeing shapes against a background or the difference between shades of colors.
  • Seeing Rainbow halos around lights.

Causes and risk factor of Cataract:

  • With age.
  • Diabetes.
  • Glaucoma.
  • Eye infection (Uveitis).
  • Family history of cataract.
  • Eye Injury.
  • Infection.
  • Congenital or by birth.
  • Exposure to ultraviolet light (Sunlight).
  • Long-term use of corticosteroids (taken by mouth for skin or any other systemic diseases).
  • Radiation exposure (X-ray technicians, airline pilots have a higher risk of developing cataract than non-pilots and that the cause may be exposure to cosmic radiation.).
  • Smoking
  • Surgery for another eye problem.
  • Using long term anti-glaucoma eye drop like Pilocarpine.

Classification of cataracts according to time of occurrence:

(A) Congenital and developmental Cataracts (less than 1% of all cataracts):

These occur due to some disturbance in the normal growth of the lens. When the disturbance occurs before birth, the child is born with a congenital cataract. Developmental cataract may occur from infancy to discrimination. There are many congenital cataracts. They are either hereditary or acquired through the placenta

1. Hereditary Congenital Cataracts: Familial forms of congenital cataracts may be autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, sporadic, or X-linked.

2. Cataract from Transplacental Infection in the First Trimester of Pregnancy:

Incidence of congenital cataract is due to virus infection contracted by the mother during the first trimester of pregnancy.

  • Rubella.
  • Mumps.
  • Hepatitis.
  • Toxoplasmosis.

The most frequent cause of congenital cataract is a rubella infection contracted by the mother, which also produces other developmental anomalies like hearing loss. This infection occurred during the fifth to eighth week of pregnancy, the phase in which the lens develops. Because the protective lens capsule has not yet been formed at this time, viruses can invade and opacify the lens tissue.

(B) Acquired Cataract (over 99% of all cataracts):

1. Senile cataract (over 90% of all cataracts) – This type of cataract occurs with age.
2. Traumatic cataract.
3. Cataract with systemic disease like diabetes or any other systemic diseases.
4. Secondary and complicated cataracts due to night blindness (retinitis pigmentosa), inflammation in the eye (Uveitis).
5. Toxic cataract-Corticosteroid (taken by mouth for skin or any other systemic diseases).
6. Postoperative cataracts due to any intraocular surgery like vitrectomy and retinal surgery.

Treatment: In early stage of cataract following things may help temporarily.

  • Better eyeglasses (Frequently changes spectacle power).
  • Better lighting.
  • Magnifying lenses.
  • Sunglasses.

If with spectacle vision gets worse, may need cataract surgery.

Is there any medication to remove cataract?

There is no medication to remove cataract, only option is cataract surgery to achieve a good visual result.

If I do not go for cataract surgery, what complication may occur?

A cataract that goes on to an advanced stage (called a hypermature cataract) can begin to leak into other parts of the eye. This may cause severe pain is called Secondary Glaucoma. If this type of thing occurs then after cataract surgery also vision may not improve.

When should I go for cataract surgery?

When a cataract has been diagnosed, consider how your vision affects your quality of life and ability to do the things, you ordinarily do. Without a cataract interferees with work, driving, computer work, reading or day to day work, there is no urgent need to remove it. There is no harm in waiting if you keep regular appointments with your eye doctor to evaluate how the cataract is progressing.

Will the operation be successful?

Cataract surgery is now performed as a microsurgical technique under an operating microscope. Modern techniques, microsurgical instruments and specially trained surgeons have made it possible to successfully perform cataract surgery without any serious complications in 98% of all patients.

Therefore it is important that the patient under goes a thorough preoperative eye examination to exclude any ocular disorders, as well as the cataract, that may worsen visual acuity and compromise the success of the cataract operation. Such disorders include uncontrolled glaucoma, uveitis, macular degeneration, retinal detachment, atrophy of the optic nerve, and amblyopia (lazy eye).

How much time it takes to perform a cataract surgery?

The procedure takes only 15-20 minutes.

Duration of hospitalization:

Now a day's no need to stay in hospital, after the surgery immediately can go home. Even medical insurance company also recommended this as a day care procedure.

Is it painful surgery?

You will not feel any pain because cataract surgery is performed under anesthesia. There are two type of anesthesia one is Local anesthesia and second is General anesthesia. Now a day, most of the cataract surgery is performed under local anesthesia.

Local anesthesia: (Retrobulbar injection, Peribulbar injection, or topical anesthesia): Here one small injection is given lower portion of the eye is called Retrobulbar or peribulbar.

Now a day topical anesthesia is very popular, because the procedure of cataract surgery takes only 15-20 minutes. So, long term anesthesia is not required for that. Here before surgery only one drop needs to instill in the eye that is enough for cataract surgery. This type of anesthesia is recommended for patients who are very smart and not nervous.

General anesthesia: This is recommended for patients who are extremely nervous, deaf, or mentally retarded or children. It is also indicated for patients with Parkinson's disease or rheumatism, who are unable to lie still without pain.

Surgical techniques to remove cataract:

Several techniques are used for removing cataracts. Latest technique is phacoemulsification. In this method a tiny instrument is inserted through a very small incision. The instrument uses ultrasound vibration to break the cataract into fine pieces, which are nicely suctioned out. Then an intra ocular lens (IOL) is inserted into the eye. No stitches are required to close the incision.

Is it necessary to implant IOL during surgery?

In 95-98% of all cataract extracts, an intraocular lens (IOL) is implanted in place of the natural lens (Posterior chamber lens). An eye with an artificial lens is called Pseudophakia. If surgery is performed without intra ocular lens then you have to use + 10D spectacle to see clearly. Without spectacle you can`t do day to day activity and second thing is heavy weight of spectacle that is very disgusting. So during surgery IOL is necessary.

Types of Intra Ocular Lens:

Monofocal IOLs: This type of lens can be implanted either for distance or near. Here patient can select wherever he wants distance vision clear or near vision clear without spectacle. If someone has so much near work and he wants to do near work without spectacle then it is possible in this type of lens. But most of the people want distance vision clear without spectacle, surgeon also want same.

Multifocal IOLs: These allow you to see at distance and near clearly. So Spectacle is not required. But one disadvantage of this type of lens is glare problem. So much perfectionist people should not go for this type of lens. This type of lens is work for housewife who has less visual demand.

Can I get 20/20 or 6/6 vision without spectacle after cataract surgery?

Pre-operative check can give an idea for 20/20 or 6/6. It depends on several conditions like:

  • Corneal curvature of the eye (Horizontal and vertical), if both meridian different more than 0.75D in keratometry then after surgery spectacle is required (Today Alcon toric IOL is available for this solution but it is very expensive).
  • If eye ball length (axial length) is very high or very less then spectacle is necessary after surgery. Eye ball length is measured by A-Scan machine. Normal eye ball length is 23-24 mm.
  • Image form in the retina. For good visual exit retina should be healthy and diseases free like diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration or any other retinal diseases.
  • If prior cataract vision was good then after surgery also chances to get same vision.
  • 90% visual exit depends on proper IOL power calculation. IOL power calculation should be done by expert technician, optometrist or doctor.
  • Last important thing is surgeon should be skilled and qualified.

Once cataract surgery done, Can I develop cataract again?

No there is no chance to develop cataract once surgery is done. But posterior capsule of the lens where lens in implanted becomes thick with time is called Posterior capsular opacification (PCO) or secondary cataract. Once PCO is developed then need to go for YAG (yttrium-aluminum-garnet) laser. This is maximum two minutes opd procedure. With laser beam the thickened capsule is to cut. So it is painless procedure.


  • The best prevention involves controlling diseases that increase the risk of a cataract.
  • Wearing sunglasses when you are outside during the day can reduce the amount of ultraviolet (UV) light your eyes are exposed to. Some sunglasses do not filter out the harmful UV. An optician should be able to tell you which sunglasses filter out the most UV.
  • For patients who smoke cigarettes, quitting will decrease the risk of cataract.
  • Eat green leafy vegetable.
  • Some studies suggest people with diabetes are at risk for developing a cataract. So, control blood sugar.
  • Should not take oral steroids for long time for any systemic disease.
  • Some eye care practitioners believe that eating a lot of salt may increase the risk of cataract.

Blind No More

In the 19th century, Robert Ingersoll was a famed speaker and agnostic. He would give popular speeches on why he doubted the existence of God. Before one crowd he read a letter he recently received from an old friend.

In the letter his friend went on to discuss getting married, becoming a father, and losing everything to alcohol.

One night he passed out in the street, and was taken in by some kind people who helped him become sober. They told him that Jesus could help him overcome his addiction, and they helped him make a new start.

In the letter he challenged Ingersoll to reconsider his beliefs, recounting that his new faith saved his family, his marriage, and set him free from alcoholism.

Ingersoll paused after reading the letter to the crowd. He then proclaimed he could speak no ill will against the power of a faith such as this. He said he could find no fault in Christ. What he did find troubling though he would say, is people who do not practice what they preach. To those types of people he would say, were his speeches directed.

Paul states, “Whenever a person turns to the Lord, the veil is removed” (2 Corinthians 3:16). The veil he is referencing has shades of meanings, but the primary thought here is to spiritual blindness.

The blindness here is being unable to see that one needs a savior, in thinking that by self effort one can somehow be perfect by trying hard enough to please God. Paul says there is another way to live, one that is effortless, one that is about freedom. It is in seeing that not one is or can be perfect, and in realizing that in Christ we don’t have to be because grace is greater than all our sin.

Paul goes on to say that only in Christ is the veil removed, and when it is, the spiritually blind can now see. They can see that their sins are forgiven, they can see that God has their best interests at heart, but most of all they can see that they don’t have to keep struggling to be good enough or religious enough, they can simply rest in knowing that Jesus forgives, he changes us, he lives in us, and he sets us on a rock that is higher.

When we have sight like that, then we will practice what we preach, because we will take our eyes off of our self, and simply see Jesus, the author and finisher of our faith.

Vitamin D and Death Due to Colorectal Cancer

Based upon recent high quality clinical research, only Vitamin D, among all vitamins, appears to have potentially significant cancer prevention effects. However, as with all areas of clinical and laboratory research, one can find contradictory research results for Vitamin D, as well.

An innovative prospective clinical research study is now reporting its results, which appear to link Vitamin D deficiency to colorectal cancer death rates. As with previous research studies, the findings of this study strongly suggest that Vitamin D deficiency may be linked with a higher risk of death due to colorectal cancer. The findings of this clinical research study appear in the current issue of the journal Cancer.

An interesting and unique aspect of this particular clinical research study was its evaluation of the potential impact of Vitamin D deficiency on the well-known increased risk of death due to colorectal cancer that has been observed in African-Americans when compared to Caucasian patients. As our bodies create active Vitamin D from exposure of our skin to sunlight, and as people with darkly pigmented skin are more prone to developing Vitamin D deficiency, when compared to lightly-pigmented people, the authors of this study sought to assess the potential colorectal cancer risk impact of Vitamin D deficiency on patient volunteers with darkly pigmented skin.

In this large public health study, the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), which was conducted between 1988 and 1994, blood levels of Vitamin D were measured in study volunteers. Patients with a Vitamin D level of less than 20 ng/dL were considered to be deficient in Vitamin D.

As previous public health studies have also shown, the results of this study indicated that African-Americans are twice as likely to die of colorectal cancer when compared to Caucasians. When blood levels of Vitamin D were considered, specifically, the increased risk of dying from colorectal cancerobserved in African-American patients decreased by 40 percent among those African-Americans who had normal levels of Vitamin D in their blood. (These results, therefore, suggest that at least 40 percent of the increased risk of dying from colorectal cancer in African-American persons is likely to be caused by Vitamin D deficiency.) When patients of all races were considered in terms of Vitamin D deficiency as a risk factor for death due to colorectal cancer, patient volunteers with a blood level of Vitamin D less than 20 ng/dL were more than twice as likely (i.e., a 211 percent increase in risk)to die of colorectal cancerduring the course of this prospective research study, when compared with patients who had normal Vitamin D levels.

In summary, this large prospectively conducted public health study found, as have previous studies, a significant association between Vitamin D deficiency and the risk of dying from colorectal cancer. (Previous Vitamin D studies have also identified a 25 to 40 percent reduction in the incidence of colorectal cancer, and death due to colorectal cancer, in study volunteers with blood Vitamin D levels in the 30 to 40 ng/dL range.) While not all clinical research studies have shown this level of colorectal cancer risk reduction associated with normal blood levels of Vitamin D, this particular study joins a growing list of clinical studies that appear to show a significant reduction in colorectal cancer risk associated with adequate levels of Vitamin D in the blood.

As excessive Vitamin D intake can cause significant health problems (especially in patients with kidney disease and parathyroid gland disease), you should check with your doctor prior to considering the use of Vitamin D supplements.

For a complete discussion of Vitamin D as a cancer prevention agent, and other evidence-based approaches to cancer risk and cancer prevention, order your copy of my new book, “A Cancer Prevention Guide for the Human Race.” For the price of a cheeseburger, fries, and a shake, you can purchase this landmark new book, in both paperback and e-book formats, and begin living an evidence-based cancer prevention lifestyle today!

Soap Skin Care – Harmful Ingredients to Get Lathered Up About

Why get all lathered up about soap skin care? Because, not all soap is created equal. A good bar soap balances fatty acids to maximize hardness, lather quality and moisturizing ability. All of this is accomplished by the ingredients that make up a bar of soap.

The basics of soap consist of a mixture of fats and lye.

Lye –All soap is made using lye. In a properly produced soap, no lye remains in the final product. Lye is consumed in the saponification process. Superfatting further assures that all lye is consumed and no harm to you.

Fats – All oils are made up of fatty acids. The fatty acids required to make soap are supplied by tallow, grease, fish oils, and vegetable oils. When these oils are saponified (oil and lye are mixed), a chemical reaction results in molecules of soap leaving glycerin behind. Glycerin is a natural part of vegetable oils and a humectant, meaning it attracts moisture to your skin. Some soap companies retain all glycerin produced in the saponification process while others remove it to sell to other companies who make lotions and moisturizers. Glycerin is a highly profitable substance. Some may keep trace amounts just to put it on their soap label.

The soap is then screened and colored. Other chemicals may be added to enhance the performance of soap. These chemicals can be irritating to your skin and even harmful for your body.

Synthetic Scents – The soap may contain fragrances which are synthetic compounds that may dry out or irritate your skin. Fragrances can have hidden ingredients such as phthalates which are linked to serious reproductive problems in studies of people and animals.

Artificial Colors – Artificial colors are mostly petroleum based chemicals. Keep in mind that your skin is porous and will absorb whatever it comes in contact with.

Chemical surfactants –Sodium laurel (or laureth) sulfate may be added to increase the lather quality. The Journal of The American College of Toxicology (ACT) in 1983 showed that concentrations as low as 0.5% could cause irritation. Some soaps have concentrations of up to 30%, which the ACT report called "highly irritating and dangerous."

The Healthier Option

The healthier alternative is to use soap created with vegetable oils, scented with essential oils and colored with herbs and plant extracts. Other added plant based oils like cocoa or shea butter will moisturize and soften your skin. Ingredients should be certified organic if possible to assure that the plants were grown without toxic chemicals.

Keeping the ingredients simple, natural and organic lead to a perfect bar of soap that will not harm you or the environment.

One Bad Decision Can Cost a Hospital Millions

Things can go wrong without the right team in place

I recently read an article that was attempting to explain the cost overrun experienced by a hospital during the launch of their new EMR. The article was clear on what caused the overrun but failed to communicate why the decision was made that created the cause.

In many hospitals, emotions can run high fueled by attitudes of resistance to change. The pressures and stress associated with go-live can be a challenge to manage; however, allowing those forces to affect decision-making can have lasting adverse financial effects. When all planning, budget, constraints, and common sense that should be applied are set aside, you can almost always expect the worse. It may feel like appeasement is the right thing to do to relieve the stress, but it may not be the best thing. Sticking to the plan, and staying within the budget should always be the guiding factor that drives decisions even when the pressure is great.

It’s unfortunate, but some decisions are based on problems that may not exist at all but are only perceived based on excessive negativity. Having an experienced team in place that can help make decisions based on fact is vital.

Negotiating Skills Do Pay Off!

When doing logistics, treat it like it’s your money

Getting one of the best hotels in the city to give you the lowest rate with great concessions is excellent. In this agreement, the hotel managed the flight itineraries and provided transportation to and from the airport. They supplied one large conference room for orientation and then surprised us in the contract with a complimentary welcome reception for 120 guests with heavy hors-d’oeuvres. Provided two fifty-six seat luxury buses and several shuttles to transport consultants to the training facility and back. They also agreed to use their shuttles to take those consultants that worked within two miles of hotel to work and back each day. Everything listed above was in the price of the rooms $105.09 with tax. Note, this took a huge burden off the consulting firm, and the savings were passed on to the hospital.

When a hospital hires a consulting firm, that consulting company should put forth all effort to save money, not spend money. Creating a positive cost variance (CV) indicates the consulting firm is in fact on your team. Negotiating for the best price is good, but getting the most value for the lowest price is better.

Consultants Saved the Day!

Good consultants can mean the difference between success and failure

I sat in an auditorium with over three hundred consultants when the speaker invited to the podium the senior implementation project manager. “Dr. So and So has overseen the EMR implementation of nineteen plus hospitals please give him a round of applause.” Wow, nineteen projects that’s impressive. However, it turned out to be a challenging project in many areas but mainly with significant workflow issues.

Although it is confusing why this happens, it is clear the leadership was out of touch. Seeking someone with excellent qualifications can be attractive for any hospital, but having someone with the insight that can eliminate problems before they exist is priceless. I am not sure why this project manager didn’t know this.

Fortunate for everyone the consultants came with the experience and knowledge necessary to handle these types of issues. Jumping into action and based on past experiences they began the process of educating the staff and leadership on what works. This go-live would have never survived without the tremendous efforts of the consultant.

Vocational Training for People With Disabilities

The central government of India has launched various initiatives to inculcate the entrepreneurship skills in differently -abled people. These public schemes include Deendayal Disabled Rehabilitation Scheme, skill training at national institutions, Scheme for Implementation of Persons with Disabilities and Vocational Rehabilitation Center for Handicapped. In this regard, a national action plan has been launched to ensure the proper implementation of these abovementioned initiatives.

Developing Employable Skills in the Population

Today, the government faces the main challenges of developing employable skills in people with physical and mental limitations and to ensure gainful employment for them. According to 2011 census, there are about 2.68 Crore of differently -abled in India which job requirements are not met. One of the major reasons is that 68 percent of the Indian population inhabits the rural areas while their conditions are aggravated from poverty considerations and inaccessible health services.

Connecting Them to Markets and Skills

The number of persons with disabilities living in these areas, are actually disconnected from markets and skills. A financial safety net is ensured for them through voluntary training for people with disabilities and it offers them a reason to rejoice for their economic independence. Better employment opportunities can be thought through voluntary training to ensure quality life for the differently -abled people. It also brings fundamental gains to the economy in a broader context.

Work Upon Where the Huge Gap Lies

Now, the question arises about the place where the huge gap lies. There is a need to upgrade the infrastructure of skill training in order to bridge the gap between demand and supply. Much of the training also lacks quality leading to less employability. There is a great need felt towards the private sector to increase its involvement in the voluntary training of individuals with disabilities. Many times, it has been felt that the skill training delivered by different ministries is either overlapping or fragmented.

Ensuring Quality Vocational Training

Therefore, only quality training training can lead to high employability while adopting a homogenous curriculum and methodology of training. Furthermore, there is a need to have latest technology in content generation as well as training and its monitoring. Also needed is the growing synergy between NGOs and the private sector to participate together in the skill development and placement process of people with different abilities.

Solving the Big Problem

The targeted and optimum utilization of the CSR funds may resolve many of the problems. The key holders like state governments, public sector undertakings, NGOs, the private sector and all Central government ministries may be of great help in such endeavors. This is because it is a known fact that only a collective effort can help us in winning over the existing situation.

Diet Pills Explained

Within the last few years, diet pills have become very popular and there are hundreds of different brand name diet supplements on the internet today. For people who know very little about slimming pills, searching for information online can be very daunting. When you type "diet pills" into Google, you get over 11 million results! Not only is there an abundance of information but most of it contains unfamiliar words such as fat binder, herbal diet pills and carb blockers. For those who are new to the diet pill market, this can be rather confusing.

This guide will break diet pills down into two main categories – prescription diet supplements and non-prescription diet supplements. Each category can be broken down further into different types of slimming tablets but, as a rule, all diet pills fall into either the prescription and non-prescription category.

Prescription diets pills – other wise known as weight loss drugs or anti-obesity drugs – can only be obtained from your GP on prescription. The reason why they are prescription only is because they are strong medical drugs that are made up of pharmaceutically produced chemicals. Many prescription drugs can have unpleasant side-effects and it is for this reason that they must be taken under medical supervision.

Prescription drugs are designed to treat the clinically obese as a last resort when all other forms of treatment, such as diet and exercise, have been exhausted. Generally, if you have a BMI over 30, your doctor may consider prescribing you anti-obesity drugs. However, each doctor is an individual and some may not prescribe them unless you have a BMI of 40+. Common prescribed diet pills are Orlistat and Sibutramine. To find out more about prescription drugs click on the link at the bottom of this article.

Non-prescription diet pills – otherwise known as herbal diet pills or herbal supplements – are available to buy online and over the counter in chemists. With over 400 non-prescription diet supplements available to buy online, herbal weight loss supplements count for the major of the diet pill market.

Unfortunately, 90% of herbal weight loss supplements do not work. This is because there are very few rules and regulations governing the herbal diet pill industry so quite literally anyone can go and make a herbal diet pill and sell it. The safest and most effective slimming tablets come from companies who have obtained certificates, medical backing and clinical trials so if you are ever unsure about a diet pills, always look out for these three features.

Unlike prescription diet supplements, which are chemical drugs, non-prescription diet pills contain naturally occurring ingredients, mainly herbs and foods, which are known for their ability to aid weight loss. Non-prescription weight loss pills can generally be divided into 4 different types – fat binders, appetite suppressants, fat burners and carbohydrates blockers. Fat binders and appetite suppressant are the most successful types of slimming tablets for weight loss and all prescription drugs are either fat binders or appetite suppressants.

Fat binders, as the name suggests, binds with fats in the digestive system form a fluid gel around the fats. This fat complex is too large to be absorbed by your body and the undigested fats are removed in your bowel movements. This natural process helps to reduce the amount of fat absorbed by your body, which significantly reduces your calorie intake. Orlistat is a prescription fat binder and Proactol is the best non-prescription fat binder.

Appetite suppressants work by reducing your appetite so that you eat less and this can significantly reduce your calorie intake. Appetite suppressants work in two ways. Firstly, when eating a meal you start to feel full much sooner than normal which means that you consume much less food, which greatly reduces your calorie intake. Secondly, appetite suppressants keep you feeling fuller for longer which means that you have no desire to snack in between meals. The most common prescribed appetite suppressants are Sibutramine and Phentermine. Hoodia Gordonii is the best non-prescription appetite suppressant – but you have to fully research which brand name of Hoodia you buy as many are scam products.

Do not get confused by the diet pill market. Remember, there are only two kinds of slimming pills:

Prescription diet pills – intended for those who are clinically obese and should only be obtained from your GP.

Non-prescription diet pills – these are herbal based diet pills that are available online and over the counter – the most effective types are fat binders (such as Proactol) and appetite suppressants (such as Hoodia Gordonii).

Laser Hair Removal Treatment For Ingrown Hair

Introduced about 2 decades back, laser hair removal treatment is now widely accepted by dermatologists as a safe and effective method of removing unwanted hair from small and large areas of the body. Laser therapy is also approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Today, laser treatment is being preferred over other methods of hair removal because of its speed and efficacy. To get effective results and to ensure safety, you should get the laser treatment conduced by a skilled and experienced professional. Laser treatment is highly popular for removal of unwanted body hair from the face, underarms, legs, pubic area, back, chest, abdomen and shoulders.

How does laser therapy work?

In laser hair removal therapy, an intense, pulsating beam of focused laser light energy is passed through the skin targeting dark pigment, called melanin, in hair. The intense heat of laser light burns the hair follicle causing permanent damage and thereby prevents the growth of new hair. Laser does not heat or damage the surrounding skin.

Laser therapy is not a permanent method of hair removal as many people claim it to be. However, it does keep unwanted body at bay for several months and even years altogether.

Comparison with electrolysis

Electrolysis is another popular method of hair removal that has been around for more than a century. Discussed below are differences between laser therapy and electrolysis treatment.

-Method of treatment – Electrolysis is an invasive technique in which a needle penetrates deep through the skin in the hair follicle whilst laser is a non-invasive technique. In this method, only light energy is used for hair removal

-Time taken – Electrolysis consumes more time than laser treatment as it treats single hair follicle at a time. Laser on the other hand, targets dozens of follicles simultaneously and hence takes less time. Small procedures may only require a single session

-Re-treatment – Since electrolysis destroys a follicle permanently, a treated hair follicle is not to be treated again. In case of laser, if a follicle treated with laser light begins to grow hair in due course, you may have to treat the same follicle again

-Effectiveness – The FDA currently allows the term “Permanent Hair Removal” for electrolysis. It is effective on all hair colors unlike laser. On the other hand studies prove that laser hair removal is faster, less painful and more reliable hair removal treatment than electrolysis but is effective for only some hair colors.

Parameters that affect the result of laser treatment

Since light is absorbed better by dark objects, laser therapy works best with dark coarse hair. Light skin and dark hair are an ideal combination, however new laser machines are now able to target dark black hair even in patients with dark skin. Besides, the skill and experience of the professional matters a lot in the case of laser treatment.

Number of sessions required for laser hair removal

To achieve effective results, multiple sessions of laser hair removal may be required. The number of sessions depend on various factors such as area of the body treated, skin color, coarseness of hair and gender. Besides, hair grows in several phases and laser treatment is only effective in the growth phase. Several sessions are needed to eradicate all hair in phases of growth. Normally 5-7 sessions may be required to make an area completely hair-free but the number of sessions may increase to as many as 12 sessions of hair treatment.

Intervals between sessions

According to current parameters, interval between sessions of laser treatment may be spaced 4-6 weeks apart for most areas. However, intervals between treatments have not been standardized and depend upon individual response to treatment. For stubborn areas such as the underarms, chest and back several sessions may be required at 6-week intervals. It is recommended that one should wait until treated hairs have been shed and enough hairs have come in after the hair-free period to have another treatment.

Herbal Sex Supplements

There are numerous herbal supplements on the market today that increase sexual performance and satisfaction. How is one to choose which of these products is the right one to try? Trying to sort through the various descriptions can be time-consuming and frustrating. Therefore, when delving into the world of herbal sex supplements, it is important to know basic information concerning herbal remedies.

When looking for an herbal remedy, it is important to find one that states it falls under the category of herbal Se supplements. The Se stands for standardized extract, meaning the ingredients are carefully measured and formulated so that each tablet or capsule contains the exact same portion of ingredients. Some herbal supplements do not offer this imperative procedure; therefore, the doses will vary, even in the same bottle.

In order to gain such goals as penis enlargement, increased sperm count, or heightened sexual desire, the incorporation of herbal Se supplements is the key. With anything else, results will vary due to the variance in the dosages taken daily. When dosages vary, consistent results are much more difficult, if not impossible, to achieve.

A prime example of herbal Se supplements can be found by researching supplements such as the MacaEnhancer or Vig-Rx. There are numerous herbal Se supplements available, and finding which one is right for your needs is simply a matter of research. Maca root has become in an increasingly popular herbal sex supplement. When combined with amino acids, the mixture will result in not only enhanced sex, but also increased semen production. When shopping for herbal sex supplements, look for ones that contain those two key ingredients and try to find one that offers vitamins as well.

Getting the right ingredients from a supplement that utilizes a standardized extract procedure will ensure that you’re using a quality product, leading to the best results. When researching for the right supplement to use, the very first thing to look for is if the supplements being studied are herbal Se supplements. If not, then do not waste any time or money on them. There are simply too many other products available that are proven to work without wasting effort on those supplements that are made with less than quality standards.

Type 2 Diabetes – Deficiency of A Brain Protein Linked With Early Brain Malfunction and Dementia

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor also referred to as BDNF, is a protein found in the central nervous system: the brain and spinal cord. It helps in the growth, maturation, and maintenance of nerve cells, and helps individual nerve cells that make up the brain, communicate with each other and is vital for both learning and memory. It is thought to help manage …

  • eating,
  • drinking,
  • body weight,
  • Type 2 diabetes, and
  • brain function.

In October of 2018, the journal Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism reported on a study from Quanzhou Hospital and Fujian Medical University in Quanzhou, China. Scientists there looked at slight brain malfunction, an early phase of dementia, in 715 people who had been diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. The researchers found having low levels of BDNF raised the risk of initial brain malfunction by 275 percent. The link was stronger in those with obesity than in nonobese people with diabetes. The investigators agreed measuring levels of BDNF could be one way of discovering those people with diabetes at risk for developing dementia.

Research on BDNF is still in its early stages, so reliable ways to increase it are not known. Fortunately, many controllable risk factors for dementia are known.

Type 2 diabetes has been linked with a …

  • 47 percent higher risk of any type of dementia,
  • 39 percent higher risk of Alzheimer's disease, and a
  • 138 percent higher risk of a condition called vascular dementia, a condition involving the blood vessels.

In November of 2017, the Miami Herald reported 80 percent of people diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease have at least some form of sugar intolerance, if not full-blown Type 2 diabetes. Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia. According to the Alzheimer Society of Canada, the following conditions are common in both Type 2 diabetes and dementia …

  • obesity,
  • heart disease,
  • a family history of heart disease,
  • blood vessel disease,
  • blood circulation problems,
  • high total cholesterol levels, and
  • high blood pressure.

The World Health Organization lists Type 2 diabetes as well as the following as increasing the risk of developing dementia …

  • having a sedentary lifestyle,
  • being obese,
  • eating an unhealthy diet,
  • age,
  • smoking tobacco,
  • drinking too much alcohol,
  • having high blood pressure,
  • having depression,
  • a low educational achievement,
  • being socially isolated, and
  • brain inactivity.

For obese individuals lowering their weight by even 5 percent can be helpful for controlling Type 2 diabetes and for helping to maintain general health. It could also help prevent dementia.

Avian Flu Can Spread Spread Cats

'In February a 2-year old male cat was having lunch. It was an unusual treat of a pigeon that had died. Five days later the cat began to show a discharge from his nose, run a temperature, panting, and appeared to be depressed. This quickly worsened to convulsions and ataxia and died two days after the initial symptoms appeared. ' This article appeared in the Sep 3, 2004 CIDRAP [Center for Infectious Disease Research].

This story is not meant to scare you, it is meant to INFORM you. Based on the recent news release I do not believe any cases of this magnitude have shown up in the United States. But just because it is not here … yet, does not mean that we should ignore the possibility. When the above case was reported the World Health Organization said "cats had not previously been considered naturally unacceptable to flu viruses". This is the first study to report entire H5N1 genome sequences in a naturally infected domestic cat. Cats are companion animals and may live in very close contact with humans. Although no direct transmission of H5N1 from cats to humans has been reported, it is possible.

'At the end of February, 2006 a variation of the H5N1 virus was detected in a domestic cat found dead on the northern island of Ruegen, Germany. Serological studies in several Asian countries suggest that dogs may also contract the H5N1 infection. Countries in Europe have advised owners of pets living near H5N1 wild bird foci to keep cats indoors and dogs on a leash when taken for a walk. '

Now we come back to the 'here / now'! We must accept the fact that there is a threat! It is going to be more difficult on some of us cat owners than others. My two cats, for example, are declawed and do not go outside at all – so I am reasonably sure they are safe. But for those of you that allow your cat free access to the outside to roam and play (and chase those birds) you might want to exercise some extra caution for a time until this threat passes. It may have appeared cute in the past when your 'alpha cat' decided to bring home the bacon in the form of a dead bird and lay it in front of your favorite chair – that time has past. Now we must take some extra caution. Of course, in any circumstances of questionable behavior or possible illness, the vet is the best bet. Even a phone call to discuss the current circumstances will help rule out any possibility of a worse case scenario.

Denis Schwartz


Devolution to Human Extinction From Its Diminution

In a recent new television drama, suggested here only as a reference point, the human race devolves into a lesser animal species. A clever scientist decides some carefully selected original humans should venture into “sleep”, as part of an “ark”, and awakened supposedly thousands of years later. As the story unfolds, the devolution of the masses resulted in dangerously destructive life forms. To save the human race from the deterioration of its previously degenerating state, a new enclave is created for those chosen to carry on human existence. A good question to pose, is why?

As modern day stories go, whether movies or television, the implications concerning human extinction ought to instigate serious social discourse. From a dramatic tone, the particular artistic expression is an interesting conception. Reflecting debasing human antics in today’s world should stir the imagination, and motivate problem-solving action. However, over time, with human beings, what actually changes? Technology aside, where the few create mechanistic conveniences for the many, human nature does not alter its selfish, arrogant and regressive thinking process.

Yet, in defiance to conforming consensus, there are small groups of those willing to work strenuously to change themselves. Regardless though, the challenges are significant. That is because, for the vast numbers of global peoples, many choose the easier ways to relish in more simplistic primordial modes. From a cave-like emergence of primeval ignorance, through successive generations, humans propagate unenlightened “forms” of their own species. Of which, there are a number of real scientists who believe humankind are devolving. By “real science”, as used here, the reference is to what was once referred to as the “hard sciences” versus the “soft sciences”. A hard science refers to fields such as physics, astronomy, chemistry, and biology.

In opposition to evidence based aspects of serious science, and by extension scientific inquiry, there are the competing fields of pseudoscience. These represent the various speculative schools of thought as in criminology, sociology, psychology, religious ideology, and any derivations thereof. Within this scheme, one should also include fringe areas, like the occult, paranormal studies, and ufology. In some universities, some of these were once referred to as the “social and behavioral sciences”.

Seemingly, by way of a pretense to “scientific inquiry” some fields of study concoct an amazing array of diagnoses. In particular, for one of field of “behavioral analysis”, a diagnostics manual was invented. Each year, “new mental illness” designations are entered into a growing database of endless speculations. Without any basis of evidentiary substantiation in terms of physical, organic or biological proof, theories become conclusions, and easily pacify a regressing culture. In such, most people will believe anything. This results in a grotesque collusive infliction throughout society.

From unscientific conjecture to exploitative consumption, to degrading and barbaric acts of torture and murder, both sanctioned and illegal, humans continue to devolve. While fiction is one thing and reality quite another, good storytelling can serve several meaningful purposes. If done well, stories impart compelling ethical lessons. Fables, parables and so forth ought to elevate and inspire, yet demonstrate the horrors of adverse human intentions. A hero’s quest becomes a reminder about important learning points that are relevant for human development. If done wrong, stories can be dangerous.

Unfortunately, in many post-modern depictions, the means of expression through the various “visual art forms” have become intellectually debased, ethically ambiguous and juvenile in the debasement of intellectual capacity. Contrived to be simplistic and not overly taxing to collective imaginations, the array of social networking, media and so on, perpetrate degrading levels of ignorance. Pseudoscience for instance contributes to the growing interactivity of “magical thinking” laced with emotional negativity.

Foolish, immature and socially irrelevant, and communicating below a high school level, many aspects of “edutainment” venues serve mass marketing purposes. To that end, the objective is not intellectual achievement, moral transformation, educational enrichment or social advancement. Instead, from alleged news reporting to politicizing public policy issues, the impetus is to maximize consumptive processes.

As a gluttonous consumer culture, materiality, particularly at the top of the social pyramid is to ensure the perpetuity of special interests. Frequently, constant bombard of advertisements strive to encourage voracious consumerism, tainted by a debasing slant of anti-intellectualism and spurious anti-science inclination. One example is the “invention” of the so-called problem of “mental illness problem”. Any time a major disruptive incident occurs, we label such a “mental health” issued.

From that juncture in the societal crossroads come the prevaricating inferences to promote the next quick fix, remedy, concoction, and easy cure-all answer. For the heavily embedded “belief systems” influenced by supernatural fixations, but pretending to find alleged “scientific” solutions, the vanity hastens irreversible regression. However, for the continuity of wealth building, such perpetrations increase the “productivity”, consumption and output of global commercialized interests. Mass consumerism pacifies a significant number on the planet and ensures commercial servitude.

Certainly, as pseudoscience triumphs over serious science, any modicum of social progress will atrophy into communal regression. Coming up with convenient and clever collusions, particularly solving behavioral issues by labeling people and prescribing “psycho-pharmaceuticals” does nothing to advance human civilization. Such is the incessant arrogance of devolving to an invented “diagnosis of mental illness”. This suggests only a small aspect of species heading toward extinction.

To do that, cite various aspects of behavior as a “mental health problem”, at least on a superficial level, infers a treatment, and treatments assume a “cure”. An alleged fix or remedy potentially invites profitability. The cycle is never ending and the conjecture compounds the incessant and relentless pursuit of a “therapy”, which leads to medicinal intervention. That means moneymaking opportunities. Traveling the rocky road of “diagnosis”, subsequently labeling people in a one size fits all template, and eventually invoking “chemical remedies”, instigates the presumed need for “patient care”.

Such questionable “scientific” attempts at behavioral control have led to an overly medicated society in constant need of “victimization”. Not too long ago, as history tells us, the idea of “social hygiene”, or advances in “mental health”, were considered “scientific” for the betterment of society. The Nazis certainly made good use of pretentiously misguided “scientific” approaches to justify social atrocities.

In the post-modern realm of “anti-thinking”, there comes the incessant drive to characterize a broad range of illicit behaviors as a “mental health problems”. Thus, the persistent intention of capitalizing on hasty and substantiated conclusions continues, by which a majority accepts and contrives to ignore history. The extraordinarily reaches of this “psycho-medical-pharmaceutical” industrial complex aids and abets clever government, media and corporate complicities, in a process of human devolution.

As to the edutainment industry, divergent spectrum in American culture assert the divisive construct of arguing for the excusable nature of immature and maladaptive behaviors. No matter how heinous the destructive conduct, or torturous the infliction, excuses easily come to the rescue for the malevolent actors involved. Seemingly, one might agree that intellectual stimulation, and by innovative connection creativity, is woefully absent, perhaps stupidly crafted to avoid accountability.

Some might debate the deliberate mechanisms of a “dumbing down” effect is taking place, given the immature nature of most visual programming across a wide spectrum. Or, by comparison, a video gone “viral”, perhaps even “bacterial”, purporting substance beyond the immediate superficiality of context, inspires millions to claim belief in the idiocy of their psychic dysfunctions. Fallacies of inference easy masquerade as public policy, as press corps aficionados and politicians assert their cognitive biases.

Expressions of caustic stupidity, simplistic anecdotes and faulty analogies seldom claim the efficacy of well-founded logic and provable evidence. Yet, such things demonstrate the gradual processes of a species in regression. Such is a life form, sometimes erroneous referred to a “civilization”, chase fake news stories, easily accepted at face value. Swiftly, such immature beliefs circulate the internet, stream across social networks, as many people quickly run with what they think are the “facts”.

As the usual foolish course of events transpire, such antics remain amusing to observe how many “experts” suddenly appear. In an age of growing superstitious beliefs, ideological extremism, and fiction promoted as factuality, the magical thinking of global social discourse colludes in debasing the prospects for an ascended human species. Where emotion over-rides the vital necessity to apply logical processes of deductive inquiry, prejudice, bias and malevolent instigations rationalize counterproductive behaviors. Why bother in the labors of transforming into a higher life form?

For those allowing self-deterioration in feeling gluttonously pampered, selfishly entitled, easily entertained, and intellectually simpleminded, the demise in not far away. Human devolution, the eventual extinction of the species, appears more realistic than science fiction could imagine. In fact, major theorists from academia to the hard sciences of the real world, speculate continually about the eventual demise of human civilization. From environmental catastrophe to nuclear terrorism, the regression unfolds.

Other than the notable efforts of a few innovative souls, for the enrichment or presumed entitlement of others, what has changed in terms of human nature? Not very much has transpired in a couple hundred thousand years. The potent singular personal impetus to ascend and transform into a higher life form has not be demonstrated by the vast numbers of the human species. Evils of that primal dichotomy of “good versus evil” in the essential nature of everyone, has not led to lofty heights of enlightenment.

Extraordinary maturation in the amazing energies of creativity and profound inventiveness looms longingly from the shadows. Darkly from the malevolence of amative resistance, alleged civilization on the planet regresses each day. In post-modern times, it is significantly arguable that something is amiss. Many ascribe a notion, or a sense, that there are weakening aspects of human interaction, more so than once believed. Frequently cited, is the metaphorical reference to a “zombie apocalypse”.

Allegory aside, others speculate about war among nation states, viral and bacterial infection, or corporate corruption and environmental exploitation as probable hypothesis for catastrophic demise. Others have reported the mathematical calculation of the inability of the planet to sustain growing global populations. In one report, scientists asserted eleven billion people would populate the earth during the 21st century.

Sustainability has nightmarish implications. Yet, in the illusions of magical thinking, hope springs eternal that simplistic solutions will suddenly fix every human problem. In the concept of “devolution” of the human species, as opposed to a specific defining feature of governmental interactions, legal action involving property, etc., the term “devolving” used here is far more serious.

Instead of “de-evolution”, as used in biology, herein this purpose refers to voluntary selfish actions of people, which are purposely maladaptive. Additionally included are the intentional counterproductive choices that select “devolutionary” behaviors. This correlates to extraordinary acts of social stupidity. Aspects of human regression appear every day in myriad news accounts, where people do harm to others.

Not just injuries and death upon people, but various life forms and the environment, which have become exploited with deliberate malice aforethought. Such behaviors are significantly associated with selfishly contrived inflictions that have regressive with terminal consequences. Such becomes human devolution toward human extinction.

From the classical criminological perspective, malice or selfishness, and with intentional purposes, the scheme of human ascendency regresses to primordial levels. Along with that, rational choice theory prevails with the notion that people make choices, regardless of socio-economic or other externalities of presumed deterministic instigations. The gluttonous self-centered aims to enrich one’s advantage over another, or an entire population remains historic with mounting disastrous consequences.

Basic parameters of illicit and unlawful behaviors, like destroying one’s planet, relates to unevolving thinking patterns that result in maladaptive outcomes. In addition to the exercise of free will, with stupidity of course, and intentional premeditation, along with gain calculated against risk, many forsake the efforts required for transformative ascendency. Transformation into well-differentiated and enlightened beings requires extraordinary devotion to personal change over generations.

Typical of criminogenic inclinations, counterproductive actions from one era to the next, generational replication, and related regressions signify the unevolving hedonistic processes of the human species. Analyze contemporary storytelling as told in recent apocalyptic drama. The revival of the so called “zombie apocalypse” offers insightful viewing of species degeneration as imagined by some creative writers. On closer examination, one might witness a continuous reinvention of an age-old saga.

Television, movies, books and video games depict various stories of the dead reanimating and threatening murderous destruction on the living. There are zombie role-play games, conventions and other related pop culture activities. In contrast to the film making and story tales of the 1930’s, post-modern zombies depict cannibalistic predators that may reflect something more socially regressive. As one group of researchers suggested, the morph from early 20th century fears of human exploitation, to 21st uncertainties of human extinction. A devolving culture is scary.

A potent metaphor by way of creative film and print viewing, could also express the worries about over-population, environmental exploitation, and gluttonous consumption. Add to that growing concern over terrorism, nuclear holocaust, political and corporate corruption, economic disparity, increasing superstitious and paranormal beliefs, and related factors. Along with the magical thinking of extreme ideologies, the seemingly “dumbing down” of one generation after the other, the dangers become real.

Added to the depth of primal fear of irreversible mortality, in a lifelong struggle to define the self, many people fruitlessly war to ensure their fame and fortune. For a legacy soon lost to dusty pages, they clamor for notice and special attention. In the process of sensitive self-pitying aggrandizement, anyone and anything is fair game for misuse and abuse. Seemingly validated as “alive”, a majority desires desperately to be heard, seen and touched so that special recognition anoints their validity.

Yet, for all the expenditures of energy to assert or claim “expertise”, special knowledge, or guru-like insight, in four billion plus years of earth, humanity is a blink of an eye. And in the several hundred thousand years that have passed, what has changed in terms of human nature. As all the “experts” pontificate their pundit “wisdom” for the simplest of answers, most have taken shortcuts in avoiding actual experiences. `

Recently, according to one particular research project, a sizeable majority readily accept a broad range of pseudo-scientific nonsense in place of serious evidentiary substantiation. Proof through verifiable sufficiency of facts has come under siege by egregious fallacies of inference. Cutting across social, economic and political interactivity, a lot people are quick to judge, accuse and react with unstable emotionalism. From pundits to politicians, the shortcut is quick and dangerous to leap into the morass of condescending fault finding in social commentary.

More and more, people find it easier to accept unsubstantiated conjecture, based mainly on personal opinion, and assume a particular correlation equates with definitive causation. Correlation does not yield causation, and neither does antidote equate to evidence. From that, hasty generalizations rapidly enjoin the connectivity of isolated events as “evidence” of a conspiracy, epidemic, or pattern of activity that “proves” something sinister is happening. Simplistic notions embrace foolish thinking.

Such erroneous assumptions perpetuate the willful neglect of critical analysis, rational assessment and logical deduction. The overall deterioration of productive and creative thinking processes the eventual collapse of culture. According to one hypothesis in a recent scientific journal, scientists proposed that human beings are susceptible to the “dumbing down” of thinking processes as an easier course of action. The implications across the spectrum of socio-economic and political interactions do not appear promising. As a species, we have embraced our diminution in our devolution to extinction.

Understanding Your Eyeglass Prescription

Understanding Your Eyeglass Prescription You’ve recently had your eyes examined and you are ready for some new prescription eyeglasses. You were handed a piece of paper, with some numbers on it, as you left your examination. You are wondering what do those numbers mean?

Your eyeglass prescription consists of lens powers needed to give you the best vision possible.

What the Numbers Mean

Your prescription will consist of numbers that represent the lens powers needed to correct the vision in each of your eyes. A typical eyeglass prescription will look something like this:

OD -3.25 -1.25 x 175

OS -4.25 -1.00 x 165

Add +2.25

The first line of an eyeglass prescription is, by convention, for the right eye. It is sometimes noted as O.D. The left eye or O.S. is the second line of your eyeglass prescription. The first column number is the spherical power for each eye. It is indicated by numbers known as diopters usually in .25 steps. Occasionally you may see .12 steps but this is rare. Sphere powers are identified by either a plus or minus sign. This is a very important to know because a minus (-) power corrects the vision problem nearsightedness and a plus (+) power corrects farsightedness. So if the sphere power of your prescription is a negative number you are nearsighted and if the sphere power is a positive number than you are farsighted. The larger the number the greater the degree of nearsightedness or farsightedness.

The second column of your eyeglass prescription is called the cylinder power. If there is a number in this column that means that you have astigmatism. The same plus and minus number conventions as the sphere power apply to the cylinder of your prescription. There may be no number in this column or there may be a sph. or sphere written in this column. In either case there is no power so you have no astigmatism. It is possible to have astigmatism in one eye and not your other.

The last column of your prescription is the axis. This represents the direction or location of your cylinder power. If there is no cylinder power in your eyeglass prescription. than it cannot and will not have an axis number indicated. If you have a cylinder power then it will have an axis. This is a measurement in degrees from 0 to 180. Only half of the 360 degree circle are used because 90 and 270 would be identical.

So if you know your sphere power cylinder power, and axis for each eye, you know if you are nearsighted, farsighted, or have if you have an astigmatism.

Occasionally a prescription may have a prism power. This is usually for people who suffer from diplopia (double vision). It may be a fraction or a decimal such as 1/2 or .75. If there is a prism power it must also have a direction or a base. This is either up, down, in, or out. Prism is relatively rare in occurrence.

A multi focal prescription such as bifocal, trifocal, or progressive lens will also have an add power. This power is in addition to the sphere, cylinder, and axis and is indicated on the next line of the prescription. It is always a positive number such as +1.25 or +2.25. This is the amount of extra focusing power to enable reading or near vision.

The last number need to complete an eyeglass prescription and fabricate a new pair of eyeglasses is the pupillary distance otherwise know as known as “PD”. It is the distance, in millimeters, between the centers of the pupils in your eyes, for example 62. This is further described as distance PD and near PD such as 63/60. Distance PD is when you are looking straight ahead and near PD is when you are looking close. When you look close your eyes turn in, therefore the near PD will always be less than your distance PD. Each eye can also be measured individually. This is called a monocular PD. It would be expressed as 31/30 or 31/31 depending on your symmetry and facial feature. An adult PD varies little with time.

NOTE: A written eyeglass prescription may or may not contain a PD measurement.

Make sure your prescription is current by having your eyes examined regularly to insure you are seeing as clearly as possible. Eyes do change gradually over time and it may be so gradual that you do not notice. Routine eye examinations also screen for the silent stealers of sight such as glaucoma and cataracts.

Did you know that you have a legal right to obtain your eyeglass prescription from your eyecare professional? That’s right. Request your prescription at the time of your eye examination or request it later, it’s your right.

Plastic Surgery and Choosing a Plastic Surgeon

What is Plastic Surgery?

Plastic surgery involves surgical reconstruction of different areas of the body. You may be interested in plastic surgery due to birth defects, disease, burns or for other and more personal cosmetic reasons. A plastic surgeon is a well-defined surgical specialist. The best in the field have completed up to 11 years of combined educational requirements, residency requirements, internship and approved residency in plastic and reconstructive surgery, plus an additional 2 years in actual practice before being board certified by the American Board of Plastic Surgeons, the Gold standard in the plastic surgery field. This is the public’s assurance that they are dealing with one of the best plastic surgeons available.

Plastic surgery can help improve the way you look and enhance your original features. Whether you are looking to have plastic surgery because of birth defects or for personal reasons, the results can boost your self confidence, build your self esteem and provide you with an entirely different outlook on life. There are many options that can improve your life and correct disfigurements or enhance your appearance. Some of the more commonly popular plastic surgery procedures are Breast Augmentation, Abdominoplasty (Tummy Tuck), Liposuction for Body Lifts, Arm Lifts, etc., facial surgeries such as Face Lifts and Rhinoplasty, as well as nonsurgical procedures like Botox injections.

Additionally some of the newer technologies are allowing us to do intricate female surgeries such as correcting vaginal relaxation using Laser Vaginal Rejuvenation procedures. This was typically a surgery only available through conventional methods until recently. By utilizing laser technology and laser surgical techniques, a plastic surgeon trained and certified in these techniques can eliminate the risks inherent with invasive conventional surgical methods, meaning less blood loss as lasers are self-cauterizing, less risk of infection and complications, virtually no hospital time and much quicker recovery times.

Choosing A Plastic or Cosmetic Surgeon

Here are some questions to help you choose a high quality plastic or cosmetic surgeon.

1. Are you Board Certified by the American Board of Plastic Surgeons?

This should be the very first question you ask. There is much public confusion about certification and there are many different certifications available, for instance, state certification. However, to ensure you are getting the highest qualified plastic surgeon available, certification by the American Board of Plastic Surgeons is the designation you are seeking. They are the only board for instance, that can certify in both plastic and reconstructive surgery.

2. Find out who will be assisting your plastic surgeon during your procedure:

There are many people needed as a support team for your surgery to go smoothly and limit the chances of any complications. Typically, your support team will include trained nursing staff, an anesthesiologist, recovery room nursing staff, and any other technicians or support needed for your particular procedure. Find out what and who they are and their qualifications.

3. Where will my surgery be performed?

While some plastic surgery procedures may be performed in the cosmetic surgeon’s office, most require hospitalization or a surgical care center. Be sure and ask about the facilities where you will be having surgery and if those facilities are accredited or certified by the appropriate agencies.

4. What are the potential risks or side effects of my plastic surgery procedure?

Every surgery carries the potential of risk, for instance excessive blood loss, infection, or other complications that may be unforeseen or that can occur. Though very rare with modern day plastic surgery techniques, they can occur, and when they happen it can mean you require additional surgery that will place an added financial risk or burden on you. Find out what these risks are. Dr. Vu, for instance, is the only Portland plastic surgeon that has been approved by CosmetAssure. CosmetAssure is basically complications insurance, and provides Dr. Vu’s patients with an additional layer of financial protection should that rare complication occur. A cosmetic surgeon approved for CosmetAssure carries the highest credentials, a spotless surgical record and possesses the highest surgical skills.

5. How long is the Recovery Time for my procedure?

Find out, every procedure varies, but knowing ahead of time will help you plan for time off work or arrange for any additional home service help you may need.

7. What type of Anesthesia should you choose?

Anesthesia is always one of the larger risks of any type of surgery and there are basically 3 types. A local anesthesia which is very low risk and primarily only used during low risk, low invasive office procedures, an IV sedation, referred to as “twilight sleep” and general anesthesia. The choice is typically left up to the patient for the latter 2, but you need to know the risks associated with each, and the cosmetic surgeon can make a recommendation to you depending upon any additional personal risks you have, such as smoking, medications you’re currently taking, etc. Be sure and cover this topic thoroughly.

8. What do past patients have to say about this particular plastic surgeon?

The fastest way to know about a plastic surgeon is by reputation, and the thing that builds (or ruins) a plastic surgeon’s reputation faster than anything is the testimonials or recommendations from existing patients. Your cosmetic surgeon should either have a good sampling of testimonials on their website, or be able to show them to you if you ask. If the plastic surgeon you are contemplating using hasn’t received cards and letters of thanks, odds are you won’t be sending them one either. If at all possible, find out if prior patients are happy with their surgery results, as well as the personality of the attending plastic surgeon themselves.

I hope you have found this information on plastic surgery useful.

Dr. Kim-Chi Vu, MD, PC

Bowen Therapy – How It Works

How can such a gentle technique produce such profound results?

It has long been understood that homeostasis and balance of all your bodymind's organs and systems is fundamental to your experience of good health.

And harmony between the two branches of your autonomous nervous system (not under the control of your conscious mind) is the essential key for helping your body, mind and spirit maintain optimal balance.

When your bodymind experiences orgoing stress, trauma, or shock the sympathetic branch of your autonomic nervous system gets chronically triggered or stuck in "fight or flight."

When the need to respond is past and your bodymind is stuck in its "flight or flight," or stress response you lose your ability to "rest and relax," or access the parasympathetic branch of your autonomous nervous system.

Bowen Therapy moves effectively send a subtle vibrational signal or message along your proprioceptive nerve pathways to your brain.

These powerful stimuli, when given adequate time for integration by your bodymind reset and balance your autonomic nervous system, signaling "your need for fight or flight is over."

You are able to relax and rest into the natural flow of your being! This results in an immediate improvement in all your bodymind's organs and systems.

The Bowen technique initiates an integrated body response, balancing your bodymind at the cellular level and restoring the energy flows within it.

The rhythmic pattern of movements and pauses that continues through a Bowen treatment allows for the "sacred space" needed for healing to occur.

Treatments are thus directed at normalizing your nervous system, especially the autonomous branch of your nervous system, with concern for establishing and maintaining the normal structural integrity of your bodymind.

Please join me for the next segment of my article about Bowen Therapy – Principles of the Bowen Technique!

Holistic MindBody Therapy, including pure essential oils, are gentle, noninvasive complementary forms of health care for balancing and synchronizing your body, mind and spirit and a natural, safe and effective way to enhance your health and well-being. Holistic health care may produce satisfying results where other methods have failed. Please consult with your physician regarding serious health concerns and do not attempt to self diagnose.