Psychosocial Factors That Promote Successful Aging

There are several psychological and social factors that have been linked to increased individual life expectancy and quality of life in older adults. While the majority of attention in the life extension and successful aging field has focused on physical factors such as exercise, diet, sleep, genetics and so on, there is a growing body of evidence that suggests that psychological and sociological factors also have a significant influence on how well individuals age (Warnick, 1995).

Warnick (1995) believes that adjusting to the changes that accompany late adulthood and old age requires that an individual is able to be flexible and develop new coping skills to adapt to the changes that are common to this time in their lives. Aging research has demonstrated a positive correlation between someone’s religious beliefs, social relationships, perceived health, self-efficacy, socioeconomic status, and coping skills among others to their ability to age more successfully. The term successful aging has been defined by three main components: “low probability of disease and disease related disability, high cognitive and physical functional capacity, and active engagement with life” (Rowe & Kahn, 1997).

Baltes and Baltes (1990) suggested that the term successful aging appears paradoxical, as aging traditionally brings to mind images of loss, decline, and ultimate death, whereas success is represented by achievement. However, the application of the term, successful aging, they argue forces a reexamination of the nature of old age as it presently exists. “An inclusive definition of successful aging requires a value based, systemic, and ecological perspective, considering both subjective and objective indicators within a cultural context” (Baltes & Baltes, 1990).

With medical advancements and improvements in living conditions people can now expect to live longer lives than ever before. But, the prospect of merely living longer presents many problems. This fact has led researchers to investigate the psychological aspects of aging, with a goal of making the additional years more worth living. There is a great deal of information that leads us to be hopeful about the prospective quality of life in late adulthood and old age.

Religious beliefs, spirituality, and church participation have been the focus of numerous studies involving older adults. Various studies have associated religiousness with well-being, life satisfaction or happiness (VanNess & Larson, 2002). Although it will be necessary for future research to more clearly specify which dimensions of religious participation are beneficial to which outcomes (Levin & Chatters, 1998), it appears that certain aspects of religious participation enables elderly people to cope with and overcome emotional and physical problems more effectively, leading to a heightened sense of well being in late adulthood.

It is commonly known that suicide rates are higher among elderly people, and there is evidence that persons who engage in religious activity are more than four times less likely to commit suicide (Nisbet, Duberstein, Conwell, et al: 2000). The inverse association between religiousness and suicide rate in elderly individuals may be due to the fact that religious beliefs help elderly people cope with or prevent depression and hopelessness, which are established risk factors for suicide (Abramson, Alloy, Hogan, et al: 2000). The relationship between religiousness and successful aging is an extremely complex one. This makes it difficult to pinpoint which factors of participation in a religious organization lead to the increased sense of well-being, satisfaction, and happiness. It is possible that religiousness exerts its beneficial effects by creating positive emotions that stimulate the immune system. Or, it may provide access to social and psychological resources that buffer the impact of stress and aid ones ability to effectively cope (Ellison, 1995).

Membership in religious organizations also provides older individuals with a social network from which to draw emotional support and encouragement, while enhancing one`s ability to adapt to change and buffer stress (Levin, Markides, Ray, 1996). Research has shown that social networks, such as those commonly found in religious organizations are associated with positive health outcomes in older adults, including lower risk of mortality, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and functional decline (Seeman, 1996). The relationships that are fostered within the church or religious group serve for many as a replacement for the social groups that they engaged in at work before retirement. In addition, the attitudes that are learned from religiously committed peers may benefit ones health through encouragement of healthy behaviors and lifestyle lowering the risk of disease (Levin & Chatters, 1998).

One of the common threads that has been found to correlate with successful aging is the individual’s socioeconomic status, particularly education and income levels (Meeks & Murrell, 2001). The relationship between education level and subjective well-being has been demonstrated consistently. Meeks and Murrell (2001) found that education did have direct effects on negative affect, trait health and life satisfaction. Their research concluded that higher educational attainment is associated with lower levels of negative affect, which is related to better health and increased life satisfaction (Meeks & Murrell, 2001). This may be due to the fact that “individuals with higher education levels benefit from the opportunities and resources related to educational attainment that produce accumulated success experiences and contribute to superior functioning in later life” (Meeks & Murrell, 2001). It is also possible that more educated people develop superior methods for problem solving and coping with change. Higher education levels have been shown to provide individuals with better occupational opportunities and social status through adulthood and greater financial stability during the transition to retirement. This establishes education level as ones foundation for successful aging (Meeks & Murrell, 2001).

Material wealth and income have been shown to have a direct relationship to subjective well-being (Andrews, 1986). For many, the sense of well-being is especially effected by their feelings of income adequacy as they move into retirement. Many individuals face retirement with great anxiety due to the lack of sufficient savings to replace their income. The reality of living on a small fixed income limits the lifestyle and ability to adapt to the changes of late adult medical needs for many elderly people. People with greater resources at retirement have access to greater variety of opportunities and activities (Jurgmeen, & Moen, 2002). In addition, the access to surplus income allows for more recreation and less stress from financial concerns. This notion that wealth and well-being are related is also supported by a microeconomics theory that states that an increase in the income level of a society would lead, other things being constant, to greater well being (Easterlin & Christine, 1999).

However, it is important to keep in mind that increases in individual income levels are relative to the changes in one’s reference group (Lian & Fairchild, 1979). Increases in income are considered to be relative. In other words, if an individual’s gains in economic status outpace the gains of the reference group then the individual will likely experience a greater sense of satisfaction. On the other hand, if their gains are equal to the average in their reference group, there will likely be no change. If the increases are less than the reference group than the result will be less satisfaction. Therefore, it may be important for many older adults transitioning to retirement to have adequate savings or other income in order to maintain or exceed their previous financial status.

The relationship between education and income to successful aging is a complex one that involves numerous external variables. But it seems that there is conclusive evidence that both education and income levels help to prepare an individual for the changes that they will face in old age and “influence on their ability to view aging as an opportunity for continued growth as opposed to an experience of social loss” (Steveink, Westerhof, Bode, et al, 2001).

One of the most important aspects of how well individuals age is related to their ability to develop and maintain strong relationships and social support systems (Rowe & Kahn, 1998). It is also important to mention that solitude, or a lack of social interaction, is considered a major health risk factor (Unger, McAvay, Bruce, et al, 1999). Recent studies suggest that the effects of social ties on the risk of physical decline in elderly are greater in men than women. These studies also report that there is a strong relationship between social support or social networks to the probability to cardiovascular and all cause mortality for men (Berkman, Seeman, Albert, et al,1993).

This gender difference could be explained by the fact that women devote a greater portion of their lives caretaking and developing friendships, so they are more accustomed to building and utilizing social networks. While men, in contrast, have devoted a greater portion of their lives to their careers, therefore, they have not developed the social networks or skills to utilize these networks that most women have (Unger, McAvay, Bruce, et al, 1999). In addition, social ties appear to be most important among elderly individuals with less physical ability (Unger, McAvay, Bruce, et al, 1999). It seems that people with physical disabilities have a greater need to develop friendships and support networks to assist them in coping with the limitations caused by their conditions. Friends and family provide them with a means to continue participating in social activities and complete the tasks of everyday living that they may be unable to accomplish on their own. This provides support for the belief that establishing strong social networks may increase not only quality of life, but quantity as well.

Social relationships and social support systems serve as protective factors in many ways (Bovbjerg & McCann, et al, 1995), (Krause & Borawski-Clarke, 1994). They benefit individuals by enhancing self esteem, providing encouragement, and promoting healthy behaviors. It is also possible that social networks may provide more tangible assistance such as food, clothing, and transportation. This type of assistance enables an elderly person to remain socially active even though they may not have the means to do so on their own. It is also important to distinguish the difference between receiving support and assistance from friends or relatives as opposed to agency assistance.

Possibly the most important source of social support comes from the family, which provides self-system mechanisms which increase an individual’s subjective impression of life satisfaction. In addition families provide a system of support and interaction that may not be available from outside sources for some elderly people. All of these types of networks may prevent the degree of social isolation in old age, that is associated with depression and other psychological problems (Krause, 1991).

With all of the physical and psychological changes that people face in late adulthood i.e., decreases in vision, hearing, memory, etc., the ability to adapt to life circumstances that force aging individuals to move from one living style to another is an integral part of successful aging (Warnick, 1995). Simply maintaining the ability to perform the everyday tasks of living is not necessarily considered successful aging. Successful aging requires the maintenance of competence involving cognitive, personality, material, and social resources (Baltes & Lang, 1993). Adapting to these changes requires the use of flexible strategies to optimize personal functioning (Baltes & Baltes, 1990).

The strategies that one may employ to cope with the changes that accompany the aging process may be limited not only by the individuals ability to utilize a new strategy, such as learning sign language or walking with a cane, but also by their perception of their ability to do so. Many elderly people will avoid using new tools to adapt to change if they believe that they are unprepared to make such an adjustment (Slagen-DeKort, 2001).

Perceived self efficacy is defined as “peoples judgment of their capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to attain designated types of performance” ( Bandura, 1986). People who believe in their ability will set higher goals for themselves and expect that they will be able to achieve these goals. Self efficacy has been found to influence the adaptive strategies used by older adults (Slangen-DeKort, 1999).

There are two dispositions besides perception of self efficacy that influence individuals ability to cope, these are flexibility and tenacity (Slangen-DeKort, 1999). Tenacity is defined by an individuals persistence with which they are able to remain focused upon their goals in the face of obstacles. Flexibility refers to ones ability to readjust goals based on new information. The research of Slangen-DeKort et al (1999) concludes that self referent beliefs regarding personal competence influence adaptive behavior and the choice of adaptive strategies. “The direct effect, which is strongest, implies that even if a person appraises a certain adaptation as the most optimal one, this adaptation may not be adopted when this person perceives that the required efforts exceed his or her personal competence. In this case, a less optimal alternative strategy will be embraced.” (Maddox & Douglas, 1973).

Given the enormous number of variables that are involved in determining how well an individual will age, it is impossible to point to one factor as being the most important. But, it is safe to say that ones ability to successfully age is determined to a great extent by their attitudes toward aging and growing old. These positive and negative attitudes will be the result of how effectively an individual is able to adapt to the physical, psychological, and social changes that will take place throughout adulthood. If someone is able to accept the changes of life and look forward to the challenges that they present with hope and desire to change, then they will be better prepared to face old age. In addition, the relationships and beliefs that are developed across the life span will be relied upon in old age as a resource for support and assistance in coping. Upon examining research on successful aging, it seems that many of the concepts that are applied to earlier developmental stages are equally important in old age.

For example, change, adaptation, personal growth, and cognitive function are aspects of development that may be as important in old age as they are in childhood development. In conclusion, it seems that the present and future of aging research may be used to develop medical and psychological interventions that will provide a more positive aging experience and well-being in old age.

References and Resources:

Abramson, L.Y, Alloy, L.B., Hogan, M.E., et al: (2000). The Hopelessness Theory of suicidality, in Suicide Science: Expanding the Boundaries. Norwen, MA., Kluwer Academic Publishers

Baltes, P.R., Baltes, M.M., (1990). Successful Aging: Perspectives from the behavioral sciences. New York: Cambridge University Press

Binstoek, RH. & George, L.B. (Ed.) (1996) Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences. San Diego: Academic Press

Bovbierg, V.E., McCann, B.S., Brief, D.J., Follette, W.e., Retzlaff, B.M., Dowdy, A.A., Walden, C.E., Knopp, RH., (1995). Spouse support and long-term adherence to lipid-lowering diets. American Journal of Epidemiology, 141,451 – 460

Bosworth, H.B., Siegler, LC., Brummett, B.H., Barefoot, J.C., et al; (1999). The relationship between

self-rated health and health status among coronary artery patients. Journal of Aging and Health, 11(4),565-584

Easterlin, RA., (1995). Will raising incomes of all increase the happiness of all? Journal of Economic Behavior and Organizations. 27, 35-48

Ellison, C.G., (1995). Race, religious involvement and depressive symptomology in a Sontheastem U.S. community. Social Science and Medicine, 40, 1561 – 1572

Ford, A.B., Hang, M.R, Stange, KC., Gaines, A.D., et al; (2002). Sustained personal autonomy: A measure of successful aging. Journal of Aging and Health, 12(4),470-489

Glover, RJ., (1998). Perspectives on aging: Issues affecting the latter part of the life cycle. Educational Gerontology, 24(4), 325-330

Jungmeen, KE., Moen, P., (2002). Retirement transitions, gender, and psychological wen-being: A life course, ecological model. The Journals of Gerontology, 57B(3),212-222

Krause, N., (1995). Religiousity and self-esteem among older adults. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 50B, 236 246

Krause, N., Boraski-Clarke, E., (1994). Clarifying the functions of social support in later life. Research on Aging, 16,251 – 279

Le Bourg, E., (2002). Are stress and longevity reaIIy linked in normal living conditions? Gerontology, 48(2), 108-111

Levin, J., Markides, KS., Ray, L.A., (1996). Religious attendance and psychological well-being in Mexican Americans. The Gerontologist, 36,454 – 463

Levin, J.S., Chatters, L.M., (1998). Religion, health, and psychological well-being in older adults: Findings from three national surveys. Journal of Aging and Health, W( 4), 504-53 I

Meeks, S., Murrell, S.A., (2001). Contribution of education to health and life satisfaction in older adults mediated by negative affect Journal of Aging and Health, 13 (1j, 92-119

Mitchell, B.A., (2002). Successful aging: Integrating contemporary ideas, research findings, and intervention strategies. Family Relations, 51(3),283-284

Nisbet, P.A., Duberstein, P.R, Conwell, Y, et aJ:, (2000). The effect of participation in religious activities on suicide versus natural death in adults 50 and older. Journal of Nerve Disorders, 188: 543-546

Parker, M.W., (2001). Soldier and family wellness across the life course: A developmental model of successful aging, spirituality, and health promotion. Military Medicine, 166(7),561-574

Rowe, J.W., Kahn, RL., (1997). ,Successful Aging. New York: Pantheon

Ryff, C.D., Marshall, V.W. (Ed.) (1999). The Self and Society in Aging Processes. New York: Springer Publishing

Seeman, T.E., (1996). Social ties and health. Annals of Epidemiology, 6, 442 – 451

Slangen-Dekort, Y.A. W., Midden, J.B.C., Aarts, B., Wagenberg, F.V., (2001). Determinants of adaptive behavior among older persons: Self-efficacy, importance, and personal disposition as directive mechauisms. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 53(4),253-274

Simonsick, E.M., (2001). Measuring higher level physical function in well-functioning older adults: Expanding familiar approaches in health ABC study. The Journals of Gerontology, 56A(lO), 644-670

Steverink, N., Westerhof, G.J., Bode, C., Dittman-Kohli, F., (2001). The personal experience of agjng, individual resourses, and subjective well being. The Journals of Gerontology, 56B(6),264-373

Tanaka, E., Sakamoto, S., Ono, Y., Fujihara, S., Kitamura, T., (1998). Hopelessness in a community populiltion: Factorial structure and psychosocial correlates. The Journal of Social Psychology, 138(5), 581-590

Unger, J.B., McAvay, G., Bruce, M.L., Berkman, L., Seeman, L., (1999). Variation in the impact of social network characteristics on the physical functioning in elderly persons. The Journals of Gerontology, 54(B), 245-251

Van Ness, P.R., Larson, D.B., (2002). Religion, senescence, and mental health: The end of life is not the end of hope. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 10(4),386-399

Warnick, J., (1995). Listening with different ears: Counseling people over sixty. Ft. Bragg CA, QED Press.

You're Fired!

We must be cautious though. I believe in what I have dreamed and pondered, but I am just a dumb human, therefore, something is wrong with what I have presented. What is it? I do not know. I can not see the future and something this substantial has never been realized. I have some ideas of how the AVDEV could have been corrupted and abused and I am sure that some of you will be able to present more ideas on the blogs and forums. The more people think about this cause, the more ideas and the better the end result manifests for the good of Joe.

I could potentially see groups of Lobby agents and Party trying to hold rallies asking Joe's to bring their AVDEV with them and hold a vote in concert, trying to influence the masses using propaganda to protect Machine. We must stay away from that scenario. If that situation was ever to arise, we will know beforehand and know to stay away. If someone requests or lures to such rallies or voting parties, you will know Machine is behind the facade.

I also could see Lobby actually lobby Joe. Yep, that means you and me. Hey, pay me. I do not have to vote for what Lobby wants, they have nothing to offer me anyway. Plus if they wish to pay big bucks, Joe's will be making money. But a single Joe's vote is too hard to target and not worth the effort. That's why I think it will be attempted on a massive scale; Targeting like-minded voter Joe's.

The best defense is just to vote how YOU WANT TO. If we implement the ideas I have concocted, I believe that we may be above temptation because we will be financially stable and informed, not such easy targets any longer.

To become Lobby is our goal. As that large aoting block and real-time results of AVDEV polling we have all the cards, because we have the vote.

CAUTION: If for some reason this whole system I have been spewing about is realized and used and somehow it is censored or destroyed or tinkered with, we will then move the real enemies out from the shadows. This way we will see just how deep this goes. I do not know what the future holds, but the ancient sages have told us that 2012 is the dawning of the Age of Aquarius, the age of revelation and enlightenment; They believed that this age would bring a wave about the masses and people will become informed and united to further human causes and efforts. It is going to be the end of the world: the world as we know it. I see a new age of human society, liberated from Machine, in possession of human rights and equality for all citizens of Earth; A globe of free countries warring, sovereign in governance, and driven to succeed as the human race.

The Hypothyroidism Natural Solution Review – Eliminate Your Thyroid Problems Naturally

Are you one of the victims of hypothyroidism? Then you must have been through a lot of these symptoms such as thrush, low sex drive, reduced concentration, abrupt weight gain and troubles of shedding off weight. Aside from these, you may also get to experience constipation, depression, heart palpitations, extreme fatigue and exhaustion. This is such a worrisome condition due to the thyroid gland’s lack of thyroid hormone production.

If you are tired of this annoying condition, an e-book called The Hypothyroidism Natural Solution might help you out just the way it helped millions of people across the globe by properly following the instructions written in the e-book as well as committing to it habitually.

Duncan Capichianno, an expert naturopath had done a broad research which then later developed to the creation of this useful guide. He points in this guide that every person has a distinct body and various kinds of problems. Since this is the case, a single medication may not work for everybody and thus he made a more personalized approach to help every individual eliminate hypothyroidism.

This guide is mainly composed of several lists of thyroid tests that many health care institutions don’t want you to know. It also includes 3 plain steps on how to fully get rid of thyroid problems by using just the natural approach. The guide also enumerates the complete list of natural herbs and their specific uses in treating thyroid problems, the right dose and the route of intake.

The guide is written in simple language, no difficult words that can’t be understood and the instructions are quite clear and easy to follow. With just couple minutes of reading, you will get to know what types of foods are best avoided and the list of vegetables and fruits that will boost the function of your thyroid gland.

If you want to not only conquer the symptoms but treat the underlying cause, this guide is for you. All treatments and remedies listed in this guide are safe to use and were proven to have no harmful side effects. Combat hypothyroidism and banish it forever by visiting

Internet Marketing and Making Money Online With Google AdSense

What is the importance of the Internet marketing? In the last few years Internet marketing has developed at a very fast pace. Every one is using their computer in every situation possible. Even if they are at work, or in their homes, the computers and the connection with the Internet became the main way to communicate and to get informed. There are online news- magazines, socialization sites and many others. You can promote your business through the Internet with the help of your blog, or other websites.

You can even do that through mail. It is the best way to interact with your clients and build strong business relationships with them. Beside that it may be the most comfortable way to do marketing and the most effective. And if you take in consideration the costs of this way of marketing, the Internet marketing can be considered the most inexpensive way to promote your businesses.

The results of this type of marketing are showing up much faster, and you can reach clients all over the world with the help of the Internet. You are not limited by anything. And now, after we made a brief description of what Internet marketing can mean for our business, we can start talking about the second topic of this article which is how to make money with AdSense. What is this exactly? Its called Google AdSense to earn money you can post different ads on your websites and when someone clicks on the ads you earn money.

Nothing can be earned without work The very first thing you must assure yourself, is that your website has enough visitors meaning traffic the more traffic the more earnings from Google AdSense you must promote your website in all the best ways possible. You should place the Google ads so they can not be ignored by visitors. Not everyone that is visiting your website will be tempted to click the ads. Place the ads on site in such positions so the visitors will be tempted in clicking the ads. Above are just some of the ideas you should know about when making money Online with Google AdSense.

What You Must Do To Live Longer

Research has shown that the key to a healthier and longer life lies on our diet. The essence of a healthy diet is simply making good choices from the foods that are available. For help in making healthy choices, the US Department of Agriculture recommends the use of a four-tier food guide pyramid.

At the base of the pyramid are complex carbohydrates, which include grain foods, such as bread, cereal, rice, and pasta. These foods are the foundation of a healthy diet. On the second tier are two equal sections; One is vegetables, and the other is fruits. These foods are also complex carbohydrates. Most of our daily diets should be selected from these three food groups.

The third tier has two smaller sections. One section has such foods as milk, yogurt, and cheese; And the other includes meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, and nuts. Only moderate amounts of foods should be ate from these groups. Why? Because most of these foods are rich in cholesterol and saturated fat, which can increase the rich of coronary diseases, such as heart attack, and cancer. And could also cause obesity.

Finally, at the very top of the pyramid is a small area that includes fats, oils, and sweets. These foods provide very few nutrients and should be eaten sparingly. More foods should be chosen from the bottom part of the pyramid, and fewer from the top.

Rather than sticking to the same food items from each section towards the bottom of the pyramid, it is wise to experiment with a variety of foods within those sections. This is because each food has a different combination of nutrients and fiber. Some vegetables and fruits, for example, are good sources of vitamins A and C, while others are high in folic acid, calcium, and iron.

Not surprisingly, vegetarian diets are becoming increasingly popular. Data are strong that vegetarians are at less risk for obesity, constipation, lung cancer, and alcoholism. And, contrary to what some may believe, with careful, proper planning, even meatless diets can meet Recommended Dietary Allowances for nutrients.

An important factor for everyone is keeping dietary-fat intake below 30 percent of total calories and saturated fat below 10 percent. You can do this without becoming a vegetarian and without unduly sacrificing your enjoyment of eating.

Want To Attract A Married Woman? Read My Secret Tips To Help You Attract A Married Women With Ease!

Imagine something for a moment. The wife who lives next door, the housewives who live down the street, the wives you see in the mall on a Sunday morning, every wife you know or could ever bump into: imagine if you had the know-how to seduce half of them; heck, imagine if you could seduce just one percent.

This short article is my attempt to boil down everything you need to know to attract a married woman.

Let me ask you this: why would any guy want to seduce a wife?

Now let me give you some food for thought.

Most men – and, I’m guessing, this applies to you – who want to have relationships with wives do so for sexual encounters or, as they are more commonly known, hookups. A wife, unlike a single woman, is the perfect woman for a man like you or any man. She has no real interest in your career; she could care less if you drive a sports car; she has no interest in the bank balance or the size of your home. The married woman is, in fact, not interested in most things that would interest a single woman. She is, in fact, interested in the same thing as you: a sexual meeting.

It is for these very reasons that clever men like yourself want to learn how to attract a married woman.

These ladies want what you want and they are infinitely easier to seduce than women without husbands.

So let me now give you the information you came here to read: my boiled down tips to seduce wives.

To make things more digestible, I’ll give you three tips. And these are really all you need to know.

Firstly, married ladies have anxieties about cheating.

It is your job to get rid of these fears. She will worry about being caught, about how it will make her feel, about whether another man can find her attractive, and whether or not she will have regrets. You need to tackle each anxiety. Once she has no fears, she becomes many times more likely to cheat with you.

Secondly, you need to make it very clear to her that you have no intention of wanting more than a fun fling.

Married women looking to cheat want men who are seeking casual relationships. Give her the impression that you want marriage or that you are seeking love and you stand very little chance of seducing her.

And, thirdly, my final tip for how you can attract a married woman. It is a sad fact of life that married relationships become stale.

What I mean is the excitement disappears. And, compounding this, both parties stop making an effort. So what can and should you do? You should bring excitement and fun to her life. Take her on a surprise date to something totally unexpected. Notice her beauty and let her know. Make an effort yourself to look the best you can look (new clothes and men’s fragrance work wonders).

Wife seduction always boils down to these three principles. Remember them and you will instantly put yourself ahead of the game!

Old Phil Propagated A Good Old Hoax

It began as all things begin na long period of boredom with nothing exciting to do. Who said, "Idle hands are the devil's workshop," knew something of what they were speaking.

As the story was told to me, it went something like this: It was toward the end of January, a long cold January at that. A group of groundhogs who were supposed to be hibernating were afflicted with a bad case of insomnia.

You know how it is. It has happened to you many times, I am sure. You are invited to be sleep but sleep is the farthest thing from your eyesballs at the time. Because of the lack of sleep, reality becomes a fading commodity.

These bored groundhogs had tried everything to cure their insomnia but nothing seemed to work. Finally, an old groundhog who had been quiet up to this time loudly cleared his throat and gained the attention of the others.

"Friends," he quietly began, "I've been thinking about something for a very long time.

Because nothing else appeared to capture the attention of the others, the old groundhog was given absolute attention. After all, what did they have to lose? There would be about six more weeks before spring and they had to stay underground all this time.

"My idea goes something like this," the gruff old groundhog grew. There seems to be a sense of bitter sarcasm in his voice. "Let us put together a hoax on those humans who live above ground.

Everyone knew the old groundhog, called Phil by everyone, did not particularly like or respect those creatures walking on top of the ground. "What's your idea?" Everyone clamored.

Cautiously, old Phil examined his audience to make sure he had their complete confidence. "What we do is this, we tell those humans that whenever a groundhog sees his shadow it will mean six more weeks of winter."

The pack of groundhogs exploded in laughter. When the laughter subsided, a young pup spoke up through tears of laughter, "Nobody is that dumb. That's impossible to get anyone to believe anything so stupid."

For the next 10 minutes, the room was filled with uncontrollable laughter. Old Phil leaned back and enjoyed the moment. He fully expected this kind of reaction. From his experience, he knew it was highly improbable that any groundhog would fall for anything as silly as this.

Finally, as the laughter subsided, another groundhog queried old Phil. "How do you propose to do such a thing?"

"Well," old Phil began, "I'm sure that if we are bored down here, those above us are bored, as well. Need something to do to break the monotony. "

The groundhogs got quiet and thoughtfully noded in agreement with wise old Phil's idea. The more they thought about it the more it began to make sense to them.

"All we have to do," Phil explained, "is to tell these humans that on a particular day of the year if a groundhog emerges from his winter's hole and happens to see his shadow it will be a sign of six more weeks of winter . "

A ripple of snickering flowed through the crowd of groundhogs but this time it was more of a conniving snicker. "But what day should we pick?" Several of them chimed in.

"Well, it has to be sometime between Christmas and Easter."

The crowd of groundhogs great quiet as each one went over the calendar in his mind. After all, they realized how important calendars were to the humans who walked on the ground above.

"It has to be a day that's not close to any other human holiday," old Phil suggested.

After several suggestions were bantered about the room, someone recommended them vote on a day. Paper ballots were prepared and passed around to everyone with instructions to make only one choice. When the balloons were collected and counted the winning date was Feb. 2.

When the date was announced the room exploded with cheers and clapping. The first part of their hoax was firmly established. A sense of excitement ran through the crowd of groundhogs assuring that sleep would not visit them that night.

It is not quite clear how old Phil communicated this to the humans above. This part of the story is a closely kept secret. After all, groundhogs have their secrets as well as anyone else. All he would say was, "It was the easiest part of our plan."

And so began one of the great rituals in the human calendar. Wise old Phil named it Groundhog Day. The name has stuck to this very day.

None of the groundhogs interviewed could believe their hoax would last so long, but all of them are deferred over the unprecedented success. This is why on Feb. 3 the underground world echoes with hardy snickering and sometimes uparious laughter.

Thankfully, not everything is powered by superstition, fables or downright hoaxes. The apostle Paul warned against this. "But refuse profane and old wives' fables, and exercise thyself rather unto godliness." (1 Timothy 4: 7 KJV.)

Following Christ is not a hoax but a holy discipline that leads to fulfillment and joy unspeakable and full of glory.

Baba Ramdev Medicine For Kidney

People who are suffering from hypertension, metabolic disorders like diabetes or other heart complications often show signs of kidney disorders. Effective functioning of the two bean shaped kidneys assures that the excretion of toxins from the body is smooth. If the toxins are not removed they start to gather inside the body leading to the production of poisonous substances that can damage the body’s healthy functions. Making sure that the toxins are excreted timely, is the responsibility of these two half disc shaped organs, which are equidistant from the spinal column on both sides of the body!

Toxins in the body are harmful, and have to be thrown out of the body in the form of urine with the help of the kidneys. The proper and timely removal of the toxins assures that the body starts healthy and alive. Edema and swelling can settle in the body if the kidney function is compromised. The human wastes gather in the kidneys and through two tubes they are taken into the bladder for excretion. The body’s minerals are also recycled with the help of kidneys and these organs also carry out mineral salt dilution in the body.

You may not even realize it but the kidneys are busy working -as you toil and as you sleep. Day in and Day out, they carry out the toxin excretions and bodily regulations. The body works best if it has an adequate supply of essential vitamins and minerals. The Kidneys have sieves that carry out a process of filtering and in this way they save the vitamins and minerals for the body by filtering them, and in turn flush waste materials out of the body.

Substance and chemical abuse largely effect kidney function. Cigarettes, alcohol, strong medications, drugs etc prompt the body to go haywire and start to increase toxin production in the body. These toxins have to be taken out, but the kidney needs to put in extra efforts in the flushing process. You need to cut down on the sodas, salty, sugary and fatty diets right away. To help in optimum functioning of kidneys the person needs to consume lots of water. Toxin build-up and lack of water shows up as swelling, engorgement and tenderness in the kidneys. This inflammation hampers the normal kidney function and leads to complications in the outflow of toxins.

Kidneys can suffer from various disorders and stone in the kidneys is one of them. The condition is painful, exhausting and deeply distressing. Regular cleansing of the kidneys is a must and for this Baba Ramdev has prepared a herbal remedy called Divya Ashmarihar Ras that can be of great help. This herbal combination acts on the kidney stones and helps in removing them from the body in a natural manner. There are plenty of conventional treatments available in modern medicine but these do not effectively remove the stones.

Medical sciences insist on surgery for stone removal and they administer chemical based medicines to control the condition. The herbal medicines are free of all side effects and reduce the chances of repeated stone formations. The Divya Ashmarihar Ras also saves the kidneys from frequent infections. Divya Punarnavadi Mandur and the package of remedies for renal failure with the goodness of Divya Ashmarihar Kvath take care of kidney health and also supply nutrition to the kidneys. Baba Ramdev medicine for kidney helps in removing kidney stones of patients who suffer with this diseases and give permanent relief.

Healing Properties of Indonesian Spices

It is already well-known that Indonesia’s land is very prosperous for spices. That is why a long time ago it attracted many foreign countries such as China, Arabia, Portugal, Spain, United Kingdom and the Netherlands to come here to trade or to conquer it. It is also the reason why Indonesian food is rich with spices and herbs such as: ginger, turmeric, different types of galangal, shallots, garlic, nutmeg, cloves. There are also fresh leaf seasonings like lemon grass, lemon basil (known as kemangi), kaffir lime, daun salam (a type of bay leaf), turmeric, etc. And of course chillies. Not only that these spices make the food taste delicious, but they are also part of botanical treasures which are good for medication. As a part of modern medical treatment, people in Indonesia have already used herbs and spices for traditional medicine.

Here some spices among others that can be used for medicine:

– Clove, which is a native spice from Indonesia and used as ingredient in cuisine all over the world, has many beneficial usage especially for medication. According to FAO, Indonesia produced almost 80% of the world’s clove output in 2005 followed at a distance by Madagascar and Tanzania. In India, cloves are used in Ayurveda called Lavang, while in Chinese and western, they use it for an anodyne (painkiller) for dental emergencies. Cloves are also used as a carminative, to increase hydrochloric acid in the stomach and to improve peristalsis. It’s known as natural antihelmintic (drugs that expel parasitic worms (helminths) from the body, by either stunning or killing them). The cloves contain of an essential oil (aetheric oil), also a number of some good chemicals compound. According to the WHO (World Health Organization), clove is one of the most widely used botanical medications in the world. As in Indonesia, this spice has been used for medicine since long time ago. With right measure together with other herbs, cloves can heal toothache, heavy cough, fever because of Malaria, pain during the menstruation and also to solve bad breath problem.

– Ginger is widely used across the country either for cuisine or medication. There’s a special drink in Central Java called ‘Wedang Ronde’ which is made from ginger and peanuts and it’s good for healing a sore throat. Ginger is also good to increase the body stamina, to heal the colds, nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness and fever.

– Galangal (Kaempferia galangal), just as ginger, it is also good to increase the body stamina, against bad breath, to heal stomach inflammation, nausea, vomiting and cold.

– Turmeric has lot of benefits for health. Besides widely used as a food coloring and is one of the principal ingredients in curry powder, it is also used for traditional medicines meant to maintain good health and beauty. Turmeric has long been used in medicine as an anti-inflammatory, to treat digestive disorders (stomach upset, gas, abdominal crams) and liver problems, preventing bacterial infection in wounds, and for treating skin diseases and wound healing. It is also good for treating irregular menstruation and leucorrhoea for women. Other benefits are for body heating and to make blood’s circulation run smoothly. There has been a substantial amount of research on turmeric’s anti-cancer potential. Evidence from laboratory and animal studies suggests that curcuma has potential in the treatment of various forms of cancer, including prostate, breast, skin, and colon. Human studies will be necessary before it is known to what extent these results may apply to people.

– Another Indonesian spice which is good for food ingredients as well as for health is lemongrass or Indonesian calls it ‘Sereh’ or ‘Serai’. Lemon grass is widely used as a herb in Asian cuisine. It has a citrus flavour and can be dried and powdered, or used fresh. It is commonly used in teas, soups, and curries. Research also shows that lemon grass oil has antifungal properties. Lemongrass has many good properties such as healing a headache, muscle and joint pain, nerve pain, rheumatism, sore throat, irritable bowel syndrome, Gastroenteritis, stomach pain, flatulence, diarrhea, stomach pain, irregular menstruation, bad breath, increases appetite, heals swollen gums, toothache. There is a traditional drink from west Java called ‘Bandrek’ which is made from lemongrass’s stick. It’s good to warm the body.

Despite all those spices above, there are still many herbs and spices in Indonesia which have great benefits for the persons health. As long as you use them with the right measurement/dosage.

Stomach Cancer – Causes, symptoms and Treatment

Stomach metastatic tumor is undisputed throughout the international and affects all races, it’s more ubiquitous in males than women, and it has its hilltop age stock relating 40 and 60 eld old. Mortality is sophisticated in Japan and Chile, presumptively due to the incompatible diets in those countries wherever they’re less parasitical on red food.

Within the ultimate 25 duration of life the quantity of this make of malignant tumor under western culture has reduced by 50% and also the consequent departure charge is just one ordinal of what it employed to be however in little manufacturing countries it’s static a chief motivation of death, likely because during these countries through the clip the sickness is diagnosed (usually by finances of the Barium suppertime) the stomach cancer reaches a unbelievably advanced time.

Kinds of Stomach Cancer

There are many antithetic types of front cancer, a number of which are terrifically pink. The utmost ubiquitous types opening within the organ cells from the stomach lining (adenocarcinomas), this is when on earth viscus caustic and organic process enzymes are created, and where record cancers instigate. Once the growth gets to be more advanced, it may voyage done the blood and spread to meat for example as the liver, lungs, and percussion instrument. Cancers that starting in the humour tissue (lymphoma), within the stomach’s powerfully built tissue (sarcoma) or perhaps in the tissues that backing the organs from the organic process group (gastrointestinal stromal tumors) are less public and therefore are doped in varied way.

Signs or symptoms

Early clues to tummy malignant neoplasm are chronic unsettled stomach and wall discomfort, followed in latter stages by weight loss, anorexia, a response of fullness after consuming, anemia and tiredness. Blood within the stools may likewise be existing and when the Cancer is incorporated in the Cardia (top) expulsion could happen.


The scrupulous mete out is unexplored even though beingness of the Helicopter pylori bacteria appears to be a core cause. Predisposing factors regard natural influences for example as smoking and broad street drug bodily process. Because tum metastatic tumor is a lot joint amongst those alongside a nearest and dearest precedent and then to family alongside sort A blood, through genes are too implicated. Dietary factors, outstandingly ways of stores maintenance for example as pickling, smoky or seasoning also provide an turn on the hold.


Stomach cancer is diagnosed done an searching that could cover an high gi (GI) series; endoscopy or gastroscopy wherever a sinewy compliant vessel is passed downward the craw therefore the surgeon can easily see into the stomach, passageway and upper area of the intestine Barium meals and Barium swallows. Since the malignant neoplasm can broadcast towards the liver, the pancreas, and separate meat adjacent the viscus as healthy regarding the lungs, the gp may writ a CT scan, a dog scan, a test sound exam, or any other tests to buy of payment these areas. For more click here stomach cancer diagnosis symptoms

Cancer can daub (metastasize) towards the muscular structure or even the petite intestine, and may widen with the tummy partition to contiguous humour nodes and organs. Metastasis happens in 80-90% of individuals alongside tum tumors, near a v period of time animation control of 75% in those diagnosed in premature stages and smaller quantity than 30% of these diagnosed in belated stages.


Even though cancer might be treated alongside surgery, energy therapy, or chemotherapy, oftentimes surgery is the psychotherapy of prime. Even just in patients whose malady isn’t thoughtful surgically curable, operation provides a lenitive consequence and improves promise advantages of chemotherapy.

The spirit and extent from the malignant tumor determines what gentle of medical science is record arrogate. Common surgical procedure procedures include, partial and utter taking out of the tum.

Antiemetics can command nausea, which increases because the malignant neoplastic disease advances. Within the more advanced stages, sedatives and tranquilizers might be necessary to adjust state of mind. Narcotics are readily compulsory to evenness divide and unremitting agony.

In whatever cases of precocious abdomen cancer, a optical device grin directed finished an medical instrument can gasify furthermost from the tumor and ameliorate obstructer lacking a surgical procedure.

Basic Low Cost Belt Drives For a Go Kart

Go Kart Drive Line components can be quite expensive, especially if you are thinking of making your own reliable cheap go kart. Typical costs for drive line components can be in the range of 100 to 200 dollars. The cheap alternative, however, to the traditional chain-clutch driven system is the belt drive.

The basic belt drive consists of a driver on the engine and a driven on the drive wheel or axle. The belt is tensioned either by moving the engine forward or by pushing a belt tensioner on the belt.

There are several important requirements for a belt drive. First the proper ratio and second the proper type components.

Go Kart Belt Drive Ratio

The belt drive system in order for it to work requires a steep ratio of 8:1. Any less of a ratio and the engine will stall and the go kart will require pushing in order for it to go. (This 8:1 ratio assumes the wheel is 12 inches in diameter.) The rule of thumb for the pulley size is that the driven pulley needs to be as large as the tire. Any smaller and the ratio will be too little and the engine will stall or the belt will smoke.

Proper Component Selection

One of the big mistakes that first time go kart builders will make is to use a pulley that is made out of zinc. Typically these pulleys can be found at hardware stores; however, they are not able to handle the horsepower requirements of go karts. In fact if you do use a pulley that is made out of aluminum or zinc the pulley will melt after about ten minutes of use. The pulley needs to be made out of steel.

The next important design criteria about an engine pulley is that is needs to be as small as possible. A diameter of 1.75 is about at large as you can go before the ratio becomes out of range and the engine stalls and smokes belts.

Additionally, the pulley will get piping hot and needs to be held in place with Loctite and a bolt on the end of the engine to prevent it from coming off of the engine. And obviously the pulley needs to be keyed to the engine to ensure proper torque transmission to the pulley-belt.

The driven side of the go kart is an entirely different matter. The pulley can be made of sandwiched plywood as the low cost homemade alternative or the pulley can be bought at a local tractor supply store. The wood pulley is attractive because it is very cheap and can be mounted directly to a wheel via bolts.

The belt tensioner system requires some durable tensioner pulleys. Those too can be purchased at a local hardware store. The belt tensioner is basically a pulley that is jammed into the face of the belt causing the belt clearance between the engine driver and the wheel pulley to lessen. This now tensioned belt grabs much better and causes the wheels to turn.

It is important to be on the slack side of the belt when using a tensioner; otherwise you will be fighting the engine and constantly burning up belts. The way to look at a belt is to view it as a glorified rubber band. The belt stretches as it passes the engine pulley.

The tension side will always be tight, but the tensioner on the slack side encourages full belt wrap; and that is the key to the belt drive: at least 180 degrees or more of belt wrap around the engine pulley.

The idea is to get as much surface area grabbing the belt so that it efficiently transfers load through and to the remainder of the drive system.

The tensioner system can be activated by a lever arm or a cable. Usually a spring is used to deactivate the system so that when the clutch is unlatched the engine is not spinning the tires.

Important Note About Belt Tensioners

This is an important note about belt clutch systems. Always make the system deactivate by itself when no human input is being done. For example, the foot releases the pedal, the clutch automatically releases. The reason for this is if the engine is being started, the last thing you want is for it to be in gear. This will cause the go kart to lurch forward during start up. Again, it is important to have the clutch system deactivate automatically.

How To Nourish Your Eyelash Growth In A Proper Way

This is in fact due to varied environmental factors like detergent soaps, shampoos, chlorinated water and too much of rubbing of the eyes lead to the loss of eyelashes, actually. Apart from this, in a few people, metabolic and hormonal conditions like hypothyroidism as well as pituitary insufficiency are considered to cause a loss of eyelashes. However, the real fact is that using a good eyelash growth serum, it is possible to help in the re-growth of your fallen eyelashes.

In most of the cases, even excessive usage of mascara is said to lead to a weakening of the lashes. This is because on usage of the mascara on that part of human body, they fall off purely because of weight.

In short, as waterproof mascaras are the toughest to remove, a few eyelashes tend to fall off when you seriously try to remove them. Moreover, when you are going to attempt to remove eye makeup, there is a high chance of lashes getting pulled out. This is why eye make-up should be removed properly and smoothly.

It has been observed that even extensive usage of eyelash curlers tend to weaken lashes to a great extent. This is why it is really nice to sparingly utilize eyelash curlers gently. However, if you seriously spot an excessive falling of eyelashes despite the fact that you do not use any make up, curlers or mascara, then it is wise to consult a physician or doctor about it as it could be a medical problem like an allergy or infection.

While lashes tend to re-grow every four to eight weeks quite often, you can improve the growth of lashes by using some eyelash growth serum to your eye lashes. There are a plenty of serum product in the market made from ingredients like protein serum, wheat germ oil, rosehip seed oil and oil of jojoba.

An eyelash growth serum is an ultimate product which can do wonders when it comes to helping in stimulating the growth of eye lashes. Besides, the nutrients available in the products assist in thickening, lengthening, and protecting frail eyelashes. The product is also great when it comes to promote healthy and unexpected growth for thicker eye lashes in a few weeks’ time.

Eyelash growth serum comes in a dropper bottle form so that you can easily apply the serum to your eyelashes, without actually touching the oils in the bottle. Try to be careful not to let the product touch any other area as well. This is because some lash growth products tend to lead to skin discoloration and in extreme cases, even trigger some allergic reaction as well.

It is nice to wash your hands thoroughly before applying the serum to their base. To obtain the best possible outcomes, apply eyelash growth serum regularly, mornings and evenings. You will have to use eyelashes growth product on your lashes for at least four weeks, before you find any results. So, don’t wait anymore! Use the web in order to find the right product at very affordable prices.

Volumetric Efficiency of a Rotary Engine Explained

According to, volumetric efficiency is:

…used to describe the amount of fuel/air in the cylinder in relation to regular atmospheric air. If the cylinder is filled with fuel/air at atmospheric pressure, then the engine is said to have 100% volumetric efficiency. On the other hand, super chargers and turbo chargers increase the pressure entering the cylinder, giving the engine a volumetric efficiency greater than 100%. However, if the cylinder is pulling in a vacuum, then the engine has less than 100% volumetric efficiency. Normally aspirated engines typically run anywhere between 80% and 100% VE. So now, when you read that a certain manifold and cam combination tested out to have a 95% VE, you will know that the higher the number, the more power the engine can produce.

Characteristics of a rotary engine compared to a 4 stroke piston engine:

A rotary engine’s rotor completes one stroke for every 270º of crank rotation:

  • Intake 270º of crank rotation.
  • Compression 540º of crank rotation.
  • Combustion 810º of crank rotation.
  • Exhaust 1080º of crank rotation.

In other words, it takes a rotary engine 1080º of crankshaft rotation to complete an intake, compression, combustion & exhaust cycle. Or 3 crankshaft rotations per cycle.

A piston completes one stroke every 180º of crank rotation:

  • Intake 180º of crank rotation.
  • Compression 360º of crank rotation.
  • Combustion 540º of crank rotation.
  • Exhaust 720º of crank rotation.

A piston engine requires 720º of crankshaft rotation to complete a cycle. In other words, 2 complete revolutions of the crankshaft.

A rotor rotates @ 1/3 of the rate of the crankshaft. In other words, for every 1 revolution of a rotor, the crankshaft has done 3 revolutions. For example when the tachometer on a vehicle indicates 9000rpms, one rotor is turning at 3000rpms.

On two rotor engines, the front & rear rotors are offset 180º from each other. A rotation of 360º of the crankshaft will bring the 2 rotors through the combustion stroke. Since each combustion chamber is -in the case of a 13B- 654cc, every 360º of crankshaft rotation will displace a total of 1308cc.

In order to interpolate the cycles and volume displaced by a rotary engine vs. a 4 piston engine, we can use the following logic:

  • A piston engine takes 720º of crank rotation to complete a cycle.
  • In a rotary engine, 720º will produce 4 combustion strokes:
  1. 360º of crank rotation => 2 combustion strokes.
  2. 720º = 360º x 2
  3. 720º of crank rotation => 4 combustion strokes.
  4. 4 strokes = 654cc x 4
  5. 4 strokes = 2616cc

For simplicity reasons, we can stipulate that a 1.3L, two rotor rotary engine is similar to a 2.6L 4 piston, 4 stroke piston engine. It may not be academically correct, but it is a relatively simple way of visualizing how the rest of this write up and the formulas that are normally applied to piston engines can be applied to a rotary engine.

Furthermore, applying the same calculations utilized to determine Volumetric Efficiency (VE) on a piston engine, but for a rotary engine will yield optimistic results. If we were to consider the rotary engine, a 4 stroke engine with a displacement of 1.3L, the results would render a VE of over 100% in more than one instance, which is very unrealistic.

Did I make any sense? Mmm maybe not but, try to follow the next steps as I try to make sense out of what I have gathered so far.

A little experiment…

Well, today I finally gave up and decided to do a little experiment that I found while searching for an effective method to calculate Volumetric Efficiency on a vehicle without having to yank the engine from the car. I came across the following experiment: Calculating your cars volumetric efficiency

I will assume that you are either too lazy or tired to follow the link, so I will explain a bit on what does the experiment entail.

The experience requires the following: (1)vehicle with an engine; (1)OBD-II Scan Tool; (1)stock air intake with a Mass Air Flow sensor (MAF) in stock trim -according to the author, a slight variance from factory stock, such as removing the screen or repositioning the sensor will give the experiment little value- (1)stretch of private, safe, deserted road.

Once you’ve acquired all those items the procedure is rather painless. Attach the scan tool to the vehicle and make sure it can report the following things: Engine RPM, Intake Air Temperature & Air Flow. Using the deserted stretch of private road, run the vehicle from a low engine rpm (2500rpm) @ WOT to redline (or as far as you want your sample to go..) while recording Intake Air Temperature (IAT), Engine Speed (RPM) & Intake Mass Air Flow (IMAF).

Once you have your data logged, re-read the experiment from the link provided and start crunching numbers! Its principle seems straight forward: based on the calculated theoretical volumetric air flow for your engine (a Renesis in this case), and the data you logged, you can approximate the actual VE of your particular engine. I will provide the formulas I used at the end of this article. For now, let’s take a look at this chart [].

Theoretical Volumetric Air Flow was calculated assuming that a 13B MSP rotary engine has similar displacement in 720º of crankshaft rotation as a 2.6 Liter, 4 stroke piston engine. Notice how VE climbs as Engine Speed increases, until it reaches 5500rpms. This is were the engine is rated to produce peak torque, therefore its safe to assume that VE will peak at or nearby 5500rpms. Furthermore, you can safely assume that Volumetric Efficiency plotted against engine speed will mimic the shape and characteristics of the torque curve produced by the engine.

Note that the plotted VE is somewhat linear: starts @ 80% and climbs its way to a tad over 100%. If this experiment’s results could be validated and the parameters I used were accurate, it would signify that the Renesis engine -on my car at least- is in fact very efficient for a normally aspirated internal combustion powerplant -VE definition above.

Calculating Volumetric Efficiency (VE) for the Renesis (13B MSP) rotary engine:

We will use the following values obtained during our data log:


Intake Air Temperature (IAT) = 82ºF

Engine Speed (RPM) = 8561rpm

AirFlow (MAF) = 27.3lb/minute



[(ED) x (rpm) x (VE)] / [(ES) x (C)] = TAF


ED = Engine Displacement [in³]

rpm = Engine Speed [RPMs]

VE = Volumetric Efficiency [%]

ES = Engine Stroke Coefficient [#]

C = Conversion coefficient from in³ to ft³

TAF = Theoretical Air Flow [ft³]


[(159.64in³) x (8561rpm) x (1)] / [(2) x (1728 in³/ft³)] = TAF

TAF = 395.42ft³


ED = 2.6 Liters (1308cc x 2) >> 159.64in³

rpm = I chose 8561rpm arbitrarily.

VE = Since this corresponds to Theoretical VE, we assume VE = 100% (1)

ES = Since we simplify a 13B engine to a 4 stroke piston engine -thus 2.6L- we use a coefficient of 2.

C = 1728in³/ft³



[(t1) / (t2)] = [(d2) / (d1)]


t1 = Temperature of air for a known density [ºR]

t2 = Temperature of the intake air measured by the IAT sensor [ºR]

d1 = Density of air for a known temperature [lb/ft³]

d2 = Density of the intake air [lb/ft³]

Solving for [d2]:

[(t1) / (t2)] x (d1) = (d2)

[(491.67ºR) / (541.67ºR)] x (0.0808lb/ft³) = d2

d2 = 0.073341lb/ft³


t1 = 32ºF >> 491.67ºR

t2 = 82ºF >> 541.67ºR

d1 = 0.0808lb/ft³



[(MF) / (d2)] = AVF


MF = Mass Flow rate taken from CANScan [lb/minute]

d2 = Density of the intake air [lb/ft³]

AVF = Actual Volumetric Flowrate [ft³/minute]


[(27.3lb/minute) / (0.073341lb/ft³)] = AVF

AVF = 372.233ft³/minute


MF = 27.3lb/minute

d2 = 0.073341lb/ft³



[(AVF) / (TAF)] = VE


AVF = Actual Volumetric Flow rate [ft³/minute]

TAF = Theoretical Air Flow rate [ft³/minute]

VE = Volumetric Efficiency [%]


[(372.233ft³/minute) / (395.42ft³/minute)] = AVF

AVF = 0.94 >> 94%


AVF = 372.233ft³/minute

TAF = 395.42ft³/minute

Is this remotely close to accurate? I truly don’t know! I simply took the time to do a little research through different channels & gathered information. If you have any comments, or would like to make any suggestions or correct aything, please by all means, contact me!

Neurodegenerative Disorders – Ayurvedic Herbal Treatment

Neurodegenerative disorders form a group of diseases in which there is a progressive loss of structure or function of neurons or nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord, resulting in progressive degeneration and death of the nerve cells causing problems with movement (ataxia) or with mental functioning (dementia). These disorders are characterized by a standard pathological process involving inflammation; oxidative stress; abnormal depletion or insufficient synthesis of neurotransmitters; and genetic mutations, causing damage to protein synthesis and premature cell death. This results in aggregation or deposit of abnormal protein clumps in various parts of the brain and spinal cord, and characteristic symptoms which help in identifying specific diseases. More than 200 such diseases are listed in this group; the commonly known diseases include Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), Huntington’s disease (HD), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), and Ataxias [including Spino-Cerebellar Ataxia (SCA)].

AD is characterized by cognitive impairment causing loss of memory; disturbance in reasoning, planning, language and perception; and behavioral changes. This disease causes deposits of fibril clumps of abnormal β amyloid protein known as senile plaques. This causes gross atrophy and degeneration of different parts of the brain including the temporal lobe, parietal lobe, parts of the frontal cortex, and the lingulate gyrus.

PD is a chronic and progressive movement disorder characterized by slow movement (bradykinesia), rigidity, resting tremor, and postural instability. There is an abnormal accumulation of protein known as Lewy bodies, causing death of dopamine generating cells in the substantia nigra, a region of the midbrain. Both AD and PD are usually associated with advanced age.

HD is an adult onset, autosomal dominant, inherited disorder characterized by involuntary movements, dementia, and behavioral changes. There is a loss of neurons in the basal ganglia and frontal and temporal cortex. The subthalamic nuclei send control signals to the globus pallidus which initiates and modulates motion. Weaker signals cause reduced initiation and modulation of movement resulting in the characteristic choreiform (repetitive, rapid and jerky) movements of HD.

ALS is a disease in which motor neurons are selectively targeted for degeneration. Motor neurons are nerve cells located in the brain, brainstem and spinal cord which serve as controlling units and communication links between the nervous system and voluntary muscles of the body. Motor neurons in the brain are known as upper motor neurons while those in the spinal cord are known as lower motor neurons. ALS is a rapidly progressive neurological disease affecting both the upper and lower motor neurons. There is a loss of voluntary control over arms, legs, and respiratory muscles. Muscle wasting, atrophy, and twitching (fasciculation) cause problems with movement, dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing), dysarthria (difficulty in speech) and spasticity. Sensory function and cognition are usually well maintained. ALS pathology includes protein aggregates, mutation in the gene encoding the antioxidant Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD 1), and mutation in chromosome 9. The mutation first acts on the local astrocytes, which later causes a toxic effect on the entire motor neuron.

Ataxias are a group of neurological disorders in which there is degeneration and atrophy of the cerebellum, causing abnormal and uncoordinated movements, gait abnormalities, fine motor in-coordination, speech and swallowing difficulties, visual abnormalities, increased fatigue, and cognitive and mood problems. Ataxia types include episodic ataxia, idiopathic ataxia, ataxia telangiectasia, oculo-motor apraxia, vitamin E deficiency ataxia, and COQ10 deficiency ataxia. Freidrich’s ataxia is an autosomal recessive variety. SCA is an autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia. It has subtypes 1, 2 and 3; SCA 7 is a slightly different type where vision abnormalities precede the ataxia.

There is currently no cure for neurodegenerative disorders; conservative treatment is mainly symptomatic and supportive in nature. Vitamins and supplements are given to help reduce symptoms or slow down the rate of progression of the disease. Occupational therapy and physiotherapy are given to maintain muscle strength and tone. Medications are given to reduce anxiety, induce sleep, reduce pain and twitching, increase blood supply to the brain, and to help balance neurotransmitters.

In this scenario, Ayurvedic treatment has a special role to play in the comprehensive management and control of neurodegenerative diseases. Preclinical and clinical studies have conclusively shown that herbal medicines bring about autoimmune modulation and neuro-protection; reduce inflammation in nerve cells; reduce mitochondrial damage; and possess antioxidant properties.

Ayurvedic treatment is therefore very useful in improving general body immunity as well as specific immunity of the nervous system. Ayurvedic medicines strengthen the nervous system and bring about immunomodulation where there are definite signs of immune mediated damage. Herbal medicines reduce abnormal protein synthesis and aggregation, and help remove abnormal protein deposits. These medicines also help reduce nerve inflammation and help repair and reduce demyelination. Ayurvedic treatment helps improve muscle strength, tone, and neuromuscular coordination; helps rebuild damaged nerves and damaged and dysfunctional parts of the brain; modulates and halts programmed cell death of nerve cells; reduces and reverses mitochondrial dysfunction and genetic mutation; and also helps reduce damage due to the hereditary component of nerve degeneration.

Currently, scientific treatment of neurodegenerative disorders with Ayurvedic medicines is still in the infancy stage, with drug regimes being planned more on a clinical basis to treat functional impairment. This approach is reaping good dividends; affected individuals – with a previous lack of response to all medications – have started improving at a significant pace. Hopefully – in the near future – specifically targeted treatments will emerge, which will treat and reverse damage in specific parts of the nervous system. This will help expedite treatment results, and identify uniform treatment approaches, which in turn will help reduce the devastating effects these diseases have on affected individuals, and hopefully bring about a complete remission.

Sex and Borderline Personality Disorder

It seems to be a common theme with those suffering from borderline personality disorder that whether in a monogamous relationship are not the person with BPD often finds themselves either having reckless sex with multiple partners or attempting to have numerous sexual relationships.

In this article we will quickly explore sex and bpd. One of the common theories as to why people with BPD have such reckless sex lives is the fact that they constantly feel emotional emptiness. Even when they find a stable emotional relationship their fear of abandonment causes them to become paranoid about the stability of their relationship and the validity of the love coming from their partner. A possibility for the reasoning behind sex and borderline personality disorder is that the sufferer of BPD actually tries to self sabotage their relationship in order to end the relationship before they are actually abandoned by their partner.

Another theory as to reckless sex and borderline personality disorder is that the BPD sufferer actually gets an emotional high from bonding with the sexual partner even if only for a short time. They are literally trying to fill in emptiness inside themselves and they try and try to fill that void with sex. After having a sexual affair the person with borderline personality disorder may not have the same amount of guilt as someone with non-BPD. The reason is projection, oftentimes people with borderline personality disorder project their negative behaviors onto others including their partners. This means that someone with this illness who is having a reckless sexual affair may have a tendency to build a fake affair that their spouse or loved one is having in their head. They literally make themselves believe that their partner is also cheating and that they are therefore justified in having their reckless sexual affair.

There are many reasons that can lead to sex and this illness, if you think you have borderline personality disorder yourself you should seek professional counseling. If your partner currently has borderline personality disorder and you fear they have reckless sexual behavior you should let your feelings be known in either work with the person on helping them get therapy and receive treatment or decide if the relationship cannot go on. Having borderline personality disorder partner is having a reckless extramarital sexual affair is not only a risk for your health but your emotional well-being. People with bpd have a keen ability to cover up their affairs and make you feel that you are the crazy one for accusing them of doing something behind your back.

Before you get caught up in trying to prove whether or not your spouse with bpd is having extramarital sexual affairs you probably want to focus on the fact that they have borderline personality disorder and make a decision on whether or not to support them in treatment or end the relationship you are currently in. If you are being abused by your spouse in any way regardless of the fact that they have BPD you need to place your safety above everything else. No mental illness is an excuse for physical or emotional abuse. If you are currently looking for a therapist that specializes in borderline personality disorder make sure that you bet their credentials and that they understand BPD as many therapists have a difficult time diagnosing BPD in finding suitable treatments.