What are the Symptoms of Hip Replacement Failure?

Hip replacement lawyers recognize arthroplasty, hip replacement surgery, as one of the medical “miracles” that restores thousands of people to active lives who, not too many decades ago, would have been condemned to disability and pain. That is why each year some 250,000 hip replacement surgeries are performed in the United States. Dr. Edward M. Schwarz, principal investigator at the Schwarz Lab for bone loss research at the University of Rochester, says that total hip joint replacement is “amongst the most successful and beneficial medical procedures to date.” He is not alone in believing that prosthetic hip surgery has made a significant contribution to patient care. According to the British Orthopaedic Association, in contemporary medicine, only cataract surgery has had a more dramatic impact on the quality of patient lives.

However, as Dr. Schwarz warns, long-term outcomes for hip replacement surgery continue to be disappointing because “wear debris generated from the implant stimulates inflammatory cells to promote osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. [This bone loss] can be found in up to 20 percent of patients ten years after primary surgery, leading to implant failure and need for revision arthroplasty.”

So, no matter how good your implant is or how skilled your orthopedic surgeon was, your hip implant may still fail from simple wear.

If you received a DePuy Orthopaedics ASR prosthetic, your risk of failure is as much as three times higher. That is what the DePuy hip replacement recall is all about.

How do you know if your hip replacement is failing? Here are some sign and symptoms:

  • Often particles grind out between the ball and socket, and they irritate surrounding tissue, causing inflammation. You will experience discomfort.
  • Inflammation leads to bone loss (resorption), and the implant may no longer be anchored securely to bone, again causing pain and reduced range of motion of the joint and difficulty walking.
  • When wear of a metal-on-metal artificial joint produces high levels of metallic ions, severe inflammation can damage or destroy muscles, tendons and ligaments.
  • Your orthopedist may be able to feel, or x-rays may show, masses or tumors in the soft tissue of the hip caused by metallic ions.

If you have a DePuy hip system, even if you are not experiencing pain, you may want to request that your doctor screen for high levels of chromium and/or cobalt in your blood, blood serum or urine. Chromium and cobalt are powerful irritants known to cause contact dermatitis, inflammation and even genetic changes at the cellular level.

Your hip replacement lawyer from the Rottenstein Law Group will be prepared to advise you if you are experiencing symptoms you think may be related to your artificial hip joint. We can also help you determine if you should pursue a hip replacement lawsuit to recover compensation from DePuy.

Ringing in Ears Symptom – What If the Ringing in Your Ears Was Caused by a Brain Tumor?

Acoustic neuromas (also called vestibular schwannomas) are brain tumors that are a ringing in ears symptom of a more serious problem. Not all symptoms of ringing ears are tumors, but you should always have an Ear Nose and Throat (ENT) doctor run a thorough set of tests to rule out an acoustic neuroma because they are a form of brain tumor.

Often people think the noises that they hear in their ears are temporary and not worth getting a doctor involved. That's because they think the tinnitus or ringing in ears symptom is a temporary medical problem. In fact, the ringing or buzzing you hear is really a symptom of another more serious condition that should not be treated lightly.

One of these serious conditions may be having an acoustic neuroma which is a brain tumor. Having the diagnosis of a brain tumor is most alarming, but take some assurance in knowing that these tumors are benign, or non-cancerous. About six percent of all brain tumors are benign vestibular schwannomas.

If for no other reason to seek medical advice, your ringing in ears are symptoms of another underlying health problem like high blood pressure, a thyroid problem, cholesterol issues as well as having a brain tumor. These vestibular schwannomas are located deep inside your skull next to nerve centers. Usually, a physician will recommend removal of these tumors.

The good news is that about 10 in every 1 million people develop an acoustic neuroma. The bad news is that the larger the tumor is, the more likely you are to suffer hearing loss. In fact you may already be experiencing some hearing loss in addition to the ringing in ears symptom.

There is a condition call neurofibromastosis Type II (NF2) which is a hereditary disease. NF2 is characterized by tumors that grow on nerves which can impact facial and auditory functions. Not all patients with vestibular schwannomas have NF2. Their tumors only impact auditory nerves so surgery should not inhibit facial nerves and movement.

Once a brain tumor reaches a certain size it must be surgically removed. In some cases hearing will be preserved, but not in all cases. If your hearing is salvaged, it will not be better than it was when the tumor was in your head. In fact, it may be worse.

So there you have it. Do not underestimate the alarm set off by your ringing in ears symptom of a more serious, underlying condition like acoustic neuroma. It could be something less dramatic too, like high cholesterol that you need to treat, but the point is – do not ignore the popping, buzzing or ringing in your ears.

Community Acquired Pneumonia – Symptoms, Diagnostic Tests and Treatment

Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) is a common and potentially serious infection of the lungs. It can lead to hospitalization and death in the elderly or those who have significant, pre-existing illnesses.

Bacteria, viruses and fungus can all cause pneumonia. Viral and fungal causes of pneumonia are not typical. This is important because the antibiotic chosen for treatment depends on the causative agent. Since X-rays and typical out-patient lab work do not identify the causative agent, treatment is based on the most likely cause. Typically, CAP is caused by bacteria of which the most common is Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Who needs to be hospitalized?

For the most part, otherwise healthy individuals with no significant pre-existing illness can be treated for pneumonia as an outpatient.

Hospitalization depends on the following factors:

  • Age> 65 years
  • Presence of other chronic illnesses (heart, kidney or lung problems, poorly controlled diabetes are the main ones)
  • People on immunosuppressants (cancer or HIV patients)
  • Cognitive or physical disabilities
  • Severity of presenting symptoms (breathing rate, blood pressure, confusion etc)

What are the symptoms of CAP?

  • Fever> 100.4
  • Cough with or without sputum
  • Wheezing
  • Pleuritic chest pain (sharp, stabbing pain with breathing)
  • Heart rate> 100 beats / minute
  • Respiration rate> 20 breaths / minute
  • Fatigue
  • Body aches, chills, nausea, vomiting or diarrhea can also be associated with CAP

Diagnosis

The more symptoms present, the more likely the diagnosis. However, you do not need to have every one of them to have pneumonia. I'm reminded of a patient I had years ago whose only symptoms were flank pain and fever. He was convinced he had kidney stones but the clinical exam and other tests did not match the picture.

So despite the importance of listening to the patient's symptoms, the diagnosis can not be made without a thorough clinical exam and when appropriate, diagnostic tests.

X-rays

It may take several days for a pneumonia to show up on x-ray. That's why x-rays may not be ordered by your provider.

Blood work

Depending on the clinical exam, your age and any other chronic illnesses, your provider may decide to order blood work.

In the early stages of pneumonia, these tests may come back normal so that's why in an otherwise healthy adult, your provider may decide to treat you with antibiotics, rather than order these tests.

Treatment

Certain classes of antibiotics are ordered depending on the likely causative agent, your age and whether you've been treated with an antibiotic within the last three months.

With the exception of azithromycin, treatment with traditional antibiotics lasts anywhere from 7-14 days depending on the type of antibiotic used. Azithromycin is generally a 5 day course but it continues to work in your system for about 10 days.

Recovery

Over 70% of people with pneumonia continue to report fatigue one month after being treated. Although usual activities may resume a week or so after treatment finishes, do not expect to be back to your usual self. This does not mean that you still have pneumonia unless your symptoms continue to persist. In the vast majority of cases, it just means that it takes time to fully return to your baseline.

Remember – do not self diagnose. See your provider if you have any concerns.

Wrist Fracture – Try Physiotherapy

Wrist Fracture Treatment by Physiotherapists
by Jonathan Blood Smyth

Every winter the weather gets cold and icy at some time and we realise that the time has come when we are less safe out and about, that season when people start to slip and fall. Falls on an outstretched hand (FOOSH) are a very common injury and often cause a fracture of the end of the forearm bones, a fracture routinely known as a wrist or colles fracture. The fracture can be insignificant or very major requiring screws and plates to realign and fix it in position. Physiotherapists assess and plan rehabilitation of the wrist, hand and forearm.

The wrist is the most commonly damaged part of the arm and three quarters of wrist injuries consists of radius and ulna fractures. Minor injuries may have just a crack and remain in position and as injuries become more serious they involve larger numbers of fragments and more marked displacement. As the person falls on the hand the results depend to some degree on age: children develop a greenstick fracture (a kink in the bone), adolescents separate the growth plate from the bone and adults fracture the radius and ulna in the last inch near the wrist.

The commonest age groups for colles fractures to occur in are the 6-10 and the 60-69 year olds, with older people more likely to suffer fractures in the forearm away from the joint and younger people, due to the higher violence of the injury, being more likely to get joint involvement in the fracture.  Diagnostic features of a radius and ulna fracture are significant pain with increased pain on palpating the area, a “dinner fork” bony deformity, swelling over the area and a marked reluctance to use it.

Management of Colles Fracture

To allow the fracture to heal correctly a colles fracture needs to be fixed in a position that allows the fracture to be held in as close to the original shape as possible. A simple fracture which is undisplaced can just be plastered and left to heal, while a displaced fracture has to be returned to a better anatomical alignment. Manipulation and plastering might work, but if the fracture does not remain in a good position then operative fixation with k-wires or plates and screws might be required. After the operation plaster is applied to maintain the correction.

Physiotherapy Rehabilitation of Wrist Fractures

The plaster is usually in place for 5-6 weeks and then the physiotherapist can get a look at the wrist and hand to see what rehabilitation plan is required. When the hand is removed from plaster its condition varies greatly so a skilled physio needs to assess the situation and recommend appropriate treatment. The swelling and colour of the hand will give the physiotherapist important information about how severe things are. High levels of pain, strong changes in colour and extreme swelling in the hand and wrist could indicate Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), a severe pain condition needing vigorous management.

The physio will look at the ranges of movement of the upper limb, checking the shoulder ranges first to make sure the shoulder was not damaged in the fall. The elbow range is usually unaffected except in some cases where the patient has kept their elbow bent in a sling for weeks, making the joint stiff. Supination and pronation are very important movements functionally and often restricted due to the proximity of the inferior radio-ulnar joint to the fracture site. Wrist flexion and extension, finger movement and thumb ranges are all assessed and recorded.

If the physiotherapist determines that the wrist is uncomplicated after removal of plaster then they will prescribe mobilizing exercises for the wrist, forearm and hand and perhaps the elbow and shoulder. Coming straight out of plaster is a shock for the wrist and a strap on futura splint can rest the wrist and permit normal activity without too much discomfort. If the wrist is very stiff then attendance at a hand class may be useful and the accessory joint movements can be restored by using joint mobilization techniques on the many wrist joints. The physio will progress to strengthening the wrist as the movements improve and teach the patient to use the hand normally in daily activities.

Pleural Effusion – Ayurvedic Herbal Treatment

Pleural effusion is an abnormal accumulation of fluids in the pleural space between the parietal and visceral pleura of the lungs. Breathlessness, chest pain and non-productive cough are the most common symptoms associated with pleural effusion. This condition is most commonly caused by congestive heart failure, pneumonia, malignancy or pulmonary embolism. Removal of the fluid in the pleural effusion by thoracentesis acts as a diagnostic procedure and also serves as a therapeutic modality.

The Ayurvedic treatment of pleural effusion is aimed at reducing the accumulation of fluid within the pleura and treating the known cause. Congestive heart failure is treated using medicines like Laxmi-Vilas-Ras, Shrung-Bhasma, Maha-Laxmi-Vilas-Ras, Arjunarishta, Punarnavadi-Qadha, Bruhat-Vat-Chintamani, Arjun (Terminalia arjuna), Punarnava (Boerhaavia diffusa), Haritaki (Terminalia chebula), Amalaki (Emblica officinalis) and Abhrak-Bhasma. Pneumonia can be treated using medicines like Shrung-Bhasma, Ras-Sindur, Malla-Sindur, Sameer-Pannag-Ras, Kantakari (Solanum xanthocarpum), Bruhat-Kantakari, Karkatashrungi (Pistichia integerima), Kushtha (Saussarea lappa), Kulingan (Alpimia galangal) and Pushkarmool (Inula racemosa).

Pleural effusions due to malignancy can be treated using medicines like Kachnaar-Guggulu, Punarnavadi-Guggulu, Panch-Tikta-Ghrut-Guggulu, Maha-Manjishthadi-Qadha, Saarivadi-Churna, Heerak-Bhasma, Laghu-Malini-Vasant, Madhu-Malini-Vasant, Suvarna-Malini-Vasant, Suvarna-Sameer-Pannag-Ras, Yashtimadhuk (Glycerrhiza glabra), Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus), Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera), Bala (Sida cordifolia) and Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum).

A massive pulmonary embolism is usually an acute medical emergency and needs to be treated in the intensive care of a hospital. However, repeated, minor pulmonary emboli can be treated using medicines like Triphala (Three fruits), Trikatu (Three pungent herbs), Chitrak (Plumbago zeylanica), Kutki (Picrorrhiza kurroa), Vishwa (Zinziber officinalis), Kutaj-Parpati and Panchamrut-Parpati.

The prognosis of pleural effusion varies and depends on the cause and characteristics of the effusion. Patients who seek medical care earlier in the course of the disease and those with prompt diagnosis and treatment have a substantially lower rate of complications than those who do not. All such patients should be under the regular care and supervision of a chest physician.

Choosing A New York Cerebral Palsy Attorney

It’s an unfortunate fact of life that the process of childbirth can have complications which sometimes cause injuries to either the mother or the newborn child. Cerebral palsy is one of the injuries affecting some unfortunate newborns. A New York cerebral palsy lawyer could help people find whether your child’s cerebral palsy was due to medical malpractice which occurred during the birth.

The cerebral palsy is fairly a rare condition of all about 10 to 15 percent of all cerebral palsy cases can be traced back to complications during the birthing process where the flow of oxygenated blood to the baby’s brain was cut off. Some of the difficulties children with cerebral palsy face growing up include poor motor control and spastic responses which are caused by the part of the brain that controls coordination of muscles.

Cerebral palsy does not get worse over time. The disease is not exacerbated as your child ages. To help the child’s current and future desires it results in expenses for special education, protective gear, physical therapy, transportation equipment and the cost of future care.

A New York cerebral palsy attorney can review birth and prenatal records to help assess whether mishandling by doctors, bad prenatal care, or even an injury sustained in infancy may have caused the damage to your newborn. If they can build a case, the doctor’s medical malpractice insurance will indemnify the physician and pay for any settlement or verdict up to the insurance policy limits.

Any New York Cerebral Palsy Lawyer will be looking for certain risks such as breech birth (where the baby entered the birth canal feet initially), whether the labor went on for a long span of time, and other complications in the delivery
room. Lack of standard prenatal care can lead to a malpractice lawsuit because factors that cause cerebral palsy can be detected and treated early during pre-birth care.

Bringing a New York cerebral palsy lawyer into the relationship between you and the doctor who delivered your baby can be a challenging experience. Because of the Hippa Act, you will have to sign forms giving your lawyer permission to look at your medical records when necessary. Majority of personal from legal field will help in organizing all payments granted by ruling or compromise, which are to be made in span of time along with interest and but excluding taxes, so that child’s needs for entire life are provided for.

You should make sure that when selecting your New York Cerebral Palsy attorney that he or she not only have the qualifications, experience and skill necessary to handle this complex arena of law, but also should be available to consult with you and your family, and be available to provide explanations of all the elements of your case and provide guidance thoughout the process.

Learn more about a New York Cerbral Palsy Attorney today.

Knee Disorders & 4 Different Types of Knee Braces

Are you experiencing any problems with your knees?

Are you now more concerned about your mobility due to an injury or from knee pain?

If you have ever had knee pain that concerns you, then read on …

Knee related conditions can have a wide degree of severity, ranging from a sprain to a complete dislocation of the joint. Unfortunately, those of us that have knee problems can have exceptional amount of daily pain, as a result of sudden movements that cause an injury, or even accidental trauma to the joint. The knee joint is the most commonly involved joint in immune diseases that affect various tissues of the body including the joints to cause arthritis.

One way to help prevent knee disorders is to use knee braces. The four main types of knee braces are discussed below, each has its own category …

1.) Prophylactic (pronounced: pro-fa-lac-tick) braces. This specific type of knee brace was designed to protect an individuals knees from injuries during contact sports like football for example. You will see many college players today using this type of knee brace.

2.) Functional braces. These knee braces are designed for a person that has already been injured themselves. For example, functional knee braces can be used for someone that is recovering from an ACL injury.

3.) Rehabilitative braces. These help to limit medial to lateral movements, as well as helping to limit extension and flexion of the knee joint after an injury or surgery. Often times these braces, although useful, will be larger because they need to control / immobilize your leg more.

4.) Unloader / offloader braces. Last but not least, these knee braces are designed to provide relief to people who have arthritis in their knees, or improper alignment. In general, they help to keep proper alignment of the joint, if one compartment of your knee is starting to have irregular mechanical alignment. This can be called varus or valgus stress.

Many personal improvements of stability have been noted by individuals that wear knee braces to help reduce pain and to promote stability. These braces are now considered a very effective and low cost option for knee pain management.

Spinal Cord Injury Treatment In India At Affordable Cost

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Spinal Cord Injury Treatment

In 1995, actor Christopher Reeve fell off a horse and severely damaged his spinal cord, leaving him paralyzed from the neck down. From then until his death in 2004, the silver screen Superman became the most famous face of spinal cord injury.

Most spinal cord injury causes permanent disability or loss of movement (paralysis) and sensation below the site of the injury. Paralysis that involves the majority of the body, including the arms and legs, is called quadriplegia or tetraplegia. When a spinal cord injury affects only the lower body, the condition is called paraplegia.

Symptoms of Spinal Cord Injury

  • Pain or an intense stinging sensation caused by damage to the nerve fibers in your spinal cord
  • Loss of movement
  • Loss of sensation, including the ability to feel heat, cold and touch
  • Loss of bowel or bladder control
  • Exaggerated reflex activities or spasms
  • Changes in sexual function, sexual sensitivity and fertility
  • Difficulty breathing, coughing or clearing secretions from your lungs

Emergency signs and symptoms

  • Fading in and out of consciousness
  • Extreme back pain or pressure in your neck, head or back Weakness, incoordination or paralysis in any part of your body
  • Numbness, tingling or loss of sensation in your hands, fingers, feet or toes
  • Loss of bladder or bowel control
  • Difficulty with balance and walking
  • Impaired breathing after injury
  • An oddly positioned or twisted neck or back

Tests and diagnosis of Spinal Cord Injury

Paramedics and emergency workers are trained to treat people who have suffered a traumatic head or neck injury as if they have a spinal cord injury or an unstable spinal column, until a thorough screening and diagnosis can be completed. A key step in the initial treatment is immobilizing the spine.

If your doctor suspects a spinal cord injury, he or she may prescribe traction to immobilize your spine, as well as high doses of the corticosteroid drug methylprednisolone (Medrol). There is some controversy about the use of this medication due to the small benefits noted in research studies and the possible risks. However, there are no other medications available at this time. So, methylprednisolone is often given as soon as possible, and it must be given within eight hours of injury…

Treatments of Spinal Cord Injury

Fifty years ago, a spinal cord injury was usually fatal. At that time, most injuries were severe, complete injuries and little treatment was available.

Today, there’s still no way to reverse damage to the spinal cord. But modern injuries are usually less severe, partial spinal cord injuries. And advances in recent years have improved the recovery of people with a spinal cord injury and significantly reduced the amount of time survivors must spend in the hospital. Researchers are working on new treatments, including innovative treatments, prostheses and medications that may promote nerve cell regeneration or improve the function of the nerves that remain after a spinal cord injury…

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Are Lacrosse Injuries Common?

High school lacrosse injuries for boys and girls usually involve strains and sprains, abrasions and contusions. Believe it or not, a 2005 study published in the American Journal of Sports Medicine, concluded that lacrosse at the high school level was a relatively safe sport.

Lacrosse is listed by the NCAA as a "collision sport". That's the same category as ice hockey and football. Though unlike those sports, lacrosse has a lower rate of injury. This could be because Men's lacrosse players have to wear chest and shoulder pads, groin cups, helmets and padded gloves and elbows. Women's lacrosse injuries data does not show the need for helmets, but mouth guards and eye protection are required.

Common Injuries

Lacrosse injuries to the hands and wrists usually happen because of a direct blow. Although lacrosse gloves are padded they are not as cushioned as hockey gloves to give more flexibility to the fingers. When the fingers are trapped against the shaft during a blow, fractures can occur.

Shoulder separations and clavicle fractures often occur from collision with another player. Falling onto the shoulder is another common cause of injury to this area. The high rate of shoulder injuries compared to other contact sports is due to the particular nature of play. Actually, during game play, the shoulder is the most frequently injured body part.

The body parts most usually injured are the ankle, upper leg, and knee, which combined accounted for 48% of all lacrosse injuries. This is due to the fact that no pads are worn on the lower extremities. Knee injuries commonly happen in lacrosse because of quick pivoting to avoid an opponent by dodging or a cut step which strains the knees.

Protective Gear

Regulations that require the use of protective equipment have been set by both US Lacrosse and the NCAA to help protect the upper extremities and head. Although Men's lacrosse is thought of as violent, NCAA injury statistics do not support this claim. About 40% of all lacrosse injuries are non-contact related.

US Lacrosse data showed that 42% of insurance claims dollars were issued for knee injuries and 50% were paid to high school athletes. Statistics show that using helmets impedes irreparable brain injuries although concussions do happen.

It is not necessary for women's lacrosse athletes to wear extensive protective gear. The occasional contact in women's lacrosse makes equipment like helmets and chest padding unnecessary. Protection of the face, eyes and mouth, are a necessity while some female players like to wear nose guards and a non-padded style glove.

It is important for coaches and parents to be familiar with the most likely injuries to occur in practice or a game. Having an idea of ​​which injuries are the most common can lead to better treatment and a shorter recovery for the athlete.

Cerebral Palsy; Life with Cerebral Palsy

“Definition of Cerebral Palsy: This is a disorder of movement and posture which is apparent in the early years. It is due to damage or failure in development of the part of the brain concerned with movement. Adjacent parts of the brain may also be injured and this may lead to poor sight, deafness or other perceptual difficulties. Children with cerebral palsy may also have learning difficulties. Impairment resulting from cerebral palsy may be very slight or very severe”.

What will you feel if one of your family members is showing the symptoms of cerebral palsy? Will you be in panic? Or rush off to grab a book to read more information about the condition in which babies are typically affected? It is very important to learn about the symptoms of cerebral palsy and its effects to the life of a person that suffers from it.

It is also important to let those people feel the love and care of their love ones. What is really Cerebral palsy? And how can these conditions affects or change the life of a person?

Cerebral palsy is a condition in which the patient is having an impaired control movement or involuntarily movement of the body. This condition is caused by the damage of the motor areas of the brain that disrupts the brain’s ability to control movement and posture. This only means, that people with cerebral palsy encounter much difficulty in maintaining balance or posture in walking.

Some patients have difficulty in controlling the muscles of the body. It doesn’t mean that when a person has a cerebral palsy, their symptoms must be the same with other patients having the same conditions. There are lot of symptoms that can be seen in them.

Children or even adults with cerebral palsy will have a great effect in leading a normal life. They can no longer live their life like everyone else. They cannot write, walk, run, or even go to the school together with their friends but they can go to a special school designed for special people like them.

Loving and caring is the most important aspects for them to be able to survive and continuously live with their love ones. Let them feel that they are important, that they have an important role to lead and play in the society. Give them hope, a chance to live better. Don’t ignore the symptoms. Treating cerebral palsy may be a lifetime battle, but it is all well worth it.

About the Hernia Repair Mesh Recall

If you pay attention to the news, you probably hear about product recalls all the time. Chances are likely that you’ve been a part of a recall, whether for a toy for your children, a part for your car, or another product you bought from a company. Sometimes companies simply don’t know about dangerous defects in their products until those products are in the hands of consumers. Sometimes, you may think the recall is silly, since you haven’t had any problems with the product yourself.

This assumption, though, shouldn’t carry over in the medical world. Just as with other consumer products, medical products can be recalled by their manufacturers. Oftentimes, these products are recalled because they have already harmed several individuals. One instance of a product recall in the medical world is the hernia repair mesh recall of 2007.

Why It Was Recalled

This mesh, known as a Kugel mesh after its inventor, was made by a company called Davol. The company manufactured this mesh patch for a number of years. It is basically a piece of woven plastic that sits behind the abdominal wall to strengthen it and to prevent further hernias. The mesh has a recoil ring in it that makes it lie flat against the muscle when it is inserted into the body.

After several patients had serious problems because of this particular hernia mesh, it was recalled. The main issue is that the recoil ring was often breaking as it was being placed into the body. Doctors had no way of knowing that the ring was broken until sometimes months after surgery. At that point, the pieces of the broken ring along with its sharp edges may have already wrought havoc on the body.

Oftentimes, patients were experiencing problems related to the migration of the broken ring. Sometimes it would migrate to another area of the body without causing too many problems. Other times, though, the ring pieces would cause all sorts of problems on their way through the body. They would scratch and perforate organs as they moved through the body, leaving organs open to fistulas and major infections. In some cases, patients even died because of the hernia mesh complications they experienced due to these broken rings.

What You Can Do

If you are currently using one of the recalled hernia mesh patches or if you’ve been injured because of problems with this device, you may need to contact a lawyer. Oftentimes, individuals have been able to get their medical expenses, missed time at work, and pain and suffering compensated by the manufacturing company of the Kugel mesh.

There is evidence that the Kugel hernia mesh was faulty long before its manufacturer issued a recall in 2005. Since this is the case, many of the individual Kugel mesh lawsuits are providing patients with some recompense for the trouble they have faced because of their hernia mesh complications. If you think you fit into this number, consult with a qualified lawyer today.

Inguinal Hernia

An inguinal hernia is a protrusion of soft tissues which are usually a part of the intestine, via a weak point or some tear in the lower abdominal wall. With this protrusion, there may be some pain in some conditions like when coughing, bending over and lifting a heavy object.

Sometimes an inguinal hernia develops at birth when the abdominal wall weakens due to the abdominal lining not closing properly. However, inguinal hernias also develop later in life when muscles happen to weaken or deteriorate due to aging, coughing associated with smoking and strenuous physical activity. Men generally have a higher tendency to develop inguinal hernias; however it is possible for infants, pregnant women and older adults to develop inguinal hernias.

Though inguinal hernias are not dangerous, they can lead to complications that are life-threatening. Therefore painful and larger inguinal hernias require surgical repair that uses only small incisions with a less painful and faster recovery. Inguinal hernias don’t usually have any symptoms; this is why it will not be noticed until a routine medical exam. There may be a bulge created by the protruding intestine which is usually more obvious when standing upright or when coughing or straining.

Some symptoms associated with inguinal hernias are pain and discomfort in the groin, a heavy or dragging sensation in the groin and in men, the scrotum develops a pain and swelling as the protruding intestine lowers into the scrotum. Infants and men have a higher tendency of developing inguinal hernias.

Other risk factors for inguinal hernias are a family history of inguinal hernias, having a persistent or chronic cough and some dangerous medical conditions. Even people suffering from chronic constipation, obesity, those in pregnancy, infants born prematurely and some jobs requiring standing for long spans of time or heavy labor leads to inguinal hernia.

A doctor only needs a physical exam to diagnose an inguinal hernia. With negligence, inguinal hernia can leads to some complications like the intestine loop getting trapped in the weak point of the abdominal wall which may lead to a diminished flow of blood to the trapped portion of the intestine. When diagnosed, small inguinal hernias may adopt a watch and wait approach. However, painful hernias call for an operation.

It is possible to reduce strain on the abdominal muscles, and thus reducing the formation of inguinal hernias by maintaining a healthy weight, increased consumption of high-fiber foods, lifting heavy objects carefully and stopping smoking.

Upper-limb Dystonia Secondary to Atlantoaxial Dislocation – a Rare Case Report

Introduction:

The Atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) is a fracture of the odontoid process, in such a way that the end that forms a joint with the atlas is separated from its base and kept in position only by the ligaments, which are not strong, joining it to the atlas. Usually AAD presents with occipital pain, others develop vertigo, brainstem signs, lower cranial nerve palsies. The brainstem findings occur with either basilar invaginations or with the alteration of the path of the vertebral artery with changing of normal anatomy.

Though Idiopathic Cervical Dystonia as a sequel to AAD has been reported in literature. [1] Upper limb dystonia is unusual in such cases and has never been reported from India as well as from any part of world and we report a 19-year-old male with AAD who presented with limb dystonia and hemiparesis

Case History:

A 19-year-old boy born of a non-consanguineous marriage, following a trivial trauma to the nape of neck before 2 years developed progressive spastic right hemiparesis. Three months prior to admission, he developed urinary urgency, precipitancy and constipation, and abnormal posturing of right upper limb predominantly of the hand.There was history of right hemiparesis when he was four years old, which improved spontaneously over two months. He denied history of fever, accident or vaccination prior to the present illness.

His neurological examination revealed short neck, low hairline and spastic right-sided hemiparesis. There was marked hyper-reflexia and clonus with posterior column impairment without signs of spinothalamic tract involvement. This was associated with restriction of neck movements and neck spasm. There were abnormal movements of right upper limb predominantly distal, in form of repetitive sustained posturing suggestive of dystonia.

The clinical, biochemical and radiological examination revealed neither evidence of rheumatoid arthritis nor any inflammatory, connective tissue disorder. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of craniovertebral junction showed a mobile Atlantoaxial dislocation with a well-developed posterior arch of atlas and the absence of the lamina of the axis.The MRI of brain was normal.

Discussion:

Atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) constitutes an important group of Cranio-Vertebral Junction anomalies frequently requiring emergency decompression and stabilization of joints to prevent morbidity and mortality resulting from compression of neurovascular bundles. Although present since birth, patients become symptomatic at a later age (often in third decade) usually following a trauma. The trauma may be so trivial, so as to be forgotten by the patient himself. When present, the severity of symptoms and its progression bears no relationship to the injury sustained. It is suggested that chronic recurrent trauma during neck movements and daily activities is an important factor for making the illness symptomatic and its sudden aggravation. Because of its varied clinical presentation and an unpredictable course the AAD is often misdiagnosed. Its usual manifestations include nuchal pain and rigidity, progressive cervical myelopathy, foramen magnum syndrome and sudden death due to compression of vital structures at cervico- medullary junction.

Dystonia is a rare neurological disorder characterized by sustained muscle contraction with resultant bizarre muscle movements and hence bizarre posturing. Broadly dystonia can be classified as focal, generalized, early onset or late onset. [2] Though dystonia due to diverse etiologies like drugs, degenerative diseases like progressive supra nuclear palsy and even cortical oligoastrocytoma have been described. [3] There has been a frequently reported association between peripheral injuries or pain and subsequent development of dystonia. Although this has been noted for many years, the mechanism is unclear and causative link is speculative. Most cases have been in patients who develop various forms of focal adult onset primary torsion dystonia after local injuries. Some patients may have pre-existing genetic liability to dystonia but this has been unproven. Occasionally Dystonia have been described in surprising clinical settings like spinal cord lesions and brainstem hemorrhage. [4,5] In the contrary, cervical dystonia itself may result in orthopedics and neurological complications including cervical spine degeneration, spondylosis, disk herniation, vertebral subluxation and fractures, radiculopathies and myelopathy. [6] AAD leading to dystonia could be due to multiple factors like limb pain and cervical cord lesion. Our case report is exceptional and AAD leading to limb dystonia has probably never been described in literature.

The exact mechanism of movement disorders in cervical cord lesions is yet not clearly understood. However, various hypotheses have been proposed which includes altered sensory input, abnormal processing of both input and output signals in the spinal interneurons and increased excitability of the spinal motor neurons. Disruption of the somatosensory pathways or motor cortex to the striatum also may produce abnormal movements without sensory loss.

Hand dystonia in our patient was ascribed to AAD with cord compression because the abnormal movements of hand completely disappeared after the correction of AAD.

References:

1.Kanekar S. Atlantoaxial dislocation in idiopathic cervical dystonia. Neurol India 2004 ;52:124-5.

2.Jowi JO, Musoke SS.Dystonia: case series of twenty two patients.East Afr Med J 2005 ;82:463-7.

3.Koch MW, Luijckx GJ, Leenders KL.Paroxysmal focal dystonia with sensory symptoms secondary to cortical oligoastrocytoma.J Neurol2006;253:1227-8.

4.Cammarota A, Gershanik OS, Garcia S, Lera G. Cervical dystonia due to spinal cord ependymoma: involvement of cervical cord segments in the pathogenesis of dystonia. Mov Disord1995;10:500-3.

5.Esteban Munoz J, Tolosa E, Saiz A, Vila N, Marti MJ, Blesa R. Upper-limb dystonia secondary to a midbrain hemorrhage. Mov Disord 1996;11:96-9.

6.Konrad C, Vollmer-Haase J, Anneken K, Knecht S. Orthopedic and neurological complications of cervical dystonia- review of the literature. Acta Neurol Scand 2004;109:369-73.

PHN (Post-Herpetic Neuralgia) Pain Relief Remedy at Hand

If one had Chicken Pox, chances are good that he was infected with Shingles disease too. Post-herpetic neuralgia is a pain than succeeds the Singles disease – after the rashes from the same heal. The worst part is that once you have shingles, you can never cure it but can follow correct treatment procedures to avoid further outbreak of the disease.

Shingles generally does not affect people who are less than 60 years old, but is more commonly seen in the ages of 80 and upwards. But then, it is a general case and may affect the younger lot too! Therefore it is important that you do not become complacent and negligent about this disease and follow the prescribed treatment in case you have contracted PHN.

It is estimated that approximately 20% of the people who develop the herpes zoster are affected by PHN in the US alone. People younger than 60 rarely develop PHN after a bout of shingles but more than 40% of the people older than 60 years do. The PHN attacks the skin and gives rise to excruciating pain that may niggle you for days or even years (only if left untreated). The dangerous thing is that the herpes zoster may virus can cause irreparable damage to your nerves during the outbreak.

PHN Pin Relief

Natural Remedies include the consumption of foods that are rich in proteolytic enzymes. Foods such as the papaya is a rich source of proteolytic enzymes and can help heal Shingles faster. A dilute solution of apple cider vinegar if applied onto the affected area with the help of sterilized cotton helps to heal the rashes – but cure of the pain aftermath the healing is no guarantee.

This is where comes the most effective PHN non-narcotic pain relief product – Menastil which has been developed by the Centre for Pain Relief.

Remedy by Menastil

This non-narcotic drug if used along with the regular prescribed medicines can prevent the excruciating pain from affecting you. It is extremely important to heal the pain – because that denotes the spread of the virus and disabling of the nerves in your body. Menastil releases some anti-inflammatory chemicals which stop the progress of the virus and then treat the pain.

It is available as both topical and oral applications. Obviously, the topical application will heal the pain faster and effectively than the oral ones, which may take some time to heal the pain.

Flip-Side

Though the drug is the best at present, its effective long term usage without any side-effects is yet to be seen. As for now, the only side effect that it has is that it facilitates minor constipation and restricts bowel movement. Along with this, suitable lactobacillus prescriptions are recommended.

Gilera scooter London

Gilera was founded in early 1900s by an Italian motorcycle manufacturer, Giuseppe Gilera, in Arcore(a small city in the Province of Milan). In 1935 Gilera purchased rights to the Rondine four-cylinder engine and later this formed the basis for Gilera’s racing machines. From the mid-thirties it started developing a series of four-stroke engine machines that had engines ranging from 100 to 500 cc, the most known of which was the 1939 Saturno.

Gilera motorcycles dominated Grand Prix motorcycle racing for 8 years after the World War II and during that period, it won 500cc road racing world championship 6 times. In 1955, the brand faced acute financial strains due to decrease in popularity of two wheelers after the war and had to downsize its production. At this stage, the owner Giuseppe Gilera decided to quit the Grand Prix racing competitions.

Later, the firm was sold to Piaggio Group which was manufacturing over 30 different models of scooters, bikes, motorcycles and mopeds and employed over 5,000 employees at that time. Piaggio rose to heights in 1970s when the Western and European countries were rocked by the revolutionary ideas of the new generation. Piaggio was very efficient in marketing its ‘fashionable’ image at that time and its scooters were successfully used in a number of movies, including the romantic flick ‘Roman Holiday’.

Gilera made a return to the Grand Prix arena in 1992 and till now Piaggio continues to produce small-displacement motorcycles with the Gilera. Its scooters are rightly known as the beasts of the road as each of the Gilera Runner scooter versions comes equipped with powerful disk brakes, liquid cooled engines and sporty paintwork. It’s tough frame, burning acceleration and breathtaking pick-ups give the rider a look of the winner. These features make the Gilera a performance oriented scooter which evokes the thrills of the racetrack. All the Gilera scooters meet the Euro 2 emission standards.