Vitamin C has the capacity to help in the absorption of iron and calcium salts in the body. This eases the digestive process. Therefore, the diet must be rich in vitamin C. Foods that contain vitamin C to a commendable quantity are amlas, oranges, etc. You can also develop gastritis due to a breakdown of the immune system. If you’ve had a prolonged illness, or if you are on immunosuppressant drugs for cancer treatment or have HIV, this can weaken your immune system and make you more susceptible to developing gastritis. Some gastritis sufferers suffer additional symptoms brought about by stomach bleeding. Gastritis is rarely severe enough to cause stomach bleeding, but it happens occasionally if the stomach lining has been penetrated.

Home remedies for gastritis treatment: there are a few home remedies that work great when trying to treat gastritis. Coconut water is a fabulous option. Not only does it soothe the stomach but also has a good amount of essential vitamins and minerals. One thing that should be added to the gastritis diet is coconut water. It provides minerals and vitamins the body needs and allows the stomach to take a break. If only coconut water is consumed for 24 hours then the stomach and digestion can return to normal.

Gastritis is a very common condition and it has been observed that almost 10% of the patients brought into emergency for abdominal pain are suffering from it. Your doctor might prescribe an acid blocker. Some of the common brand names of acid blockers that you may have heard of are Tagamet, Zantac, Axid, and Pepcid. Gastritis is what happens when something causes your stomach lining to be compromised, allowing the caustic acids to damage the stomach. A lot of different things can cause this to happen.

Asparagus aids in healing the stomach. The root of Asparagus cools the acidity of the stomach. Since stress can potentially aggravate the stomach condition, bitter chamomile tea alleviates tensions and worries. Chronic inflammation can occur with long- term use of certain medications (such as aspirin and arthritis drugs), gastrointestinal disorders like Crohn’s disease, alcoholism, or viral infections. It has recently been discovered that many cases of gastritis are caused by a bacterium, Helicobacter pylon. If the cause is the H. pylori bacterium, solving gastritis is relatively simple: Antibiotics kill the bacteria, and your symptoms go away. If the cause is something else, your doctor may prescribe other drugs to lower the amount of acid in your stomach.

Recommended foods for individuals with gastritis include eating foods high in antioxidants like fruits and vegetables. Particular fruits and vegetables include bell peppers, tomatoes, cherries, blueberries, and squash.

People suffering from gastritis should follow a diet that meets the recommendations for good digestion. They should also avoid heavy meals and focus on small meals frequently. If the gastritis is dependent on an excess of acidity, you should follow a diet low in foods that require strong acid secretions such as meat and fish, but focus on those that buffer the acidity such as dairy products, bread and starches in general. Consult your doctor if you are taking medicines like ibuprofen and aspirin. Take care of your diet and help relieve the pain and suffering caused by this condition. A proper gastritis diet combined with stress management should give you good results.

Pericarditis – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment Methods

Pericarditis is a disorder caused by inflammation of the pericardium, which is the sac-like covering of the heart. The pericardium has an inner and outer layer with a small amount of lubricating fluid between them. Pericarditis frequently causes a characteristic chest pain that usually compels one to seek medical attention. Pericarditis may be acute or chronic. The sharp chest pain associated with acute pericarditis occurs when the pericardium rubs against the heart’s outer layer. It is usually a complication of viral infections, most commonly echovirus or coxsackie viruses. Less frequently, it can be caused by influenza or HIV infection. Infections with bacteria can lead to bacterial pericarditis (also called purulent pericarditis). Pericarditis is the name given to a variety of diseases, all of which have the major characteristics of inflammation of the pericardium and an increase in volume of the pericardial fluid. Constrictive Pericarditis is present when a fibrotic, thickened, and adherent pericardium restricts diastolic filling of the heart. It usually begins with an initial episode of acute pericarditis, which may not be detected clinically.

The most common symptom of pericarditis is sharp, stabbing chest pain behind the breastbone or in the left side of your chest. Pericarditis occurs in up to 15% of patients who have acute myocardial infarctions. Pericarditis most often affects men aged 20-50, usually following respiratory infections. It can also occur in children, where it is most commonly caused by adenovirus or coxsackie virus. Patients who have suffered a heart attack (myocardial infarction) may develop pericarditis over subsequent days or weeks. Kidney failure caused by the buildup of certain toxins in the body also can lead to pericarditis. In people who have AIDS, a number of infections, including tuberculosis, may result in pericarditis. In the early stages of pericarditis, it may be hard to tell whether your chest pain is from inflammation or from a possible heart attack. The visceral pericardium is attached to the epicardial fat and reflects back on itself to form the parietal pericardium. The pericardium normally contains as much as 50 mL of an ultrafiltrate of plasma. Pericarditis is a progressive disease which can be life-threatening if not treated in a timely manner.

Causes of Pericarditis

The common causes and risk factor’s of Pericarditis include the following:

A viral, bacterial or fungal infection.


Auto-immune diseases (such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, or scleroderma).


Chest trauma.

After heart surgery.

Kidney failure, or drugs.

Other diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.

Symptoms of Pericarditis

Some sign and symptoms related to Pericarditis are as follows:

Ankle, feet and leg swelling (occasionally).

Irregular heartbeat..

Splinting of ribs (bending over or holding the chest) with breathing.


Loss of appetite.

A low-grade fever.

Shallow breathing.

Increase in heart-rate.

Treatment of Pericarditis

Here is list of the methods for treating Pericarditis:

Painkillers will ease the pain. If the pain is severe, steroid medicines may be used to reduce the inflammation.

Occasionally steroids are used for severe attacks.

Medicines, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), are commonly used to manage the pain and inflammation.

Fungal pericarditis should be treated with antifungal agents.

Sometimes pericarditis is treated in the hospital. If you need to be hospitalized, you will be given strict bed rest until your symptoms abate.

Diuretics to treat heart failure symptoms.

Edema – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatments

Edema is observable swelling from fluid accumulation in body tissues. Edema most commonly occurs in the feet and legs, where it is referred to as peripheral edema. The swelling is the result of the accumulation of excess fluid under the skin in the spaces within the tissues. All tissues of the body are made up of cells and connective tissues that hold the cells together.

Swollen feet and legs, referred to medically as edema, occur when fluid is retained in the spaces between body cells. Edema typically affects the feet, ankles and lower legs, but can also impact any area of the body, causing systemic symptoms.


Acute mountain sickness occurs from the combination of reduced air pressure and a lower concentration of oxygen at high altitude. Symptoms can range from mild to life threatening, and can affects the nervous system, lungs, muscles, and heart.

In most cases the symptoms are mild. In severe cases fluid collects in the lungs (pulmonary edema) causing extreme shortness of breath, which further reduces how much oxygen a person gets. Brain swelling may also occur (cerebral edema). This can cause confusion, coma, and, if untreated, death.


People with edema may notice that a ring on their finger feels tighter than in the past, or they might have difficulty in putting on shoes, especially toward the end of the day. They may also notice a puffiness of the face around the eyes, or in the feet, ankles, and legs. When edema is present, pressure on the skin, such as from the elastic band on socks, may leave an indentation that is slow to disappear. Edema of the abdomen, called ascites, may be a sign of serious underlying disease and must be immediately evaluated by a doctor.


A doctor diagnoses altitude illness based mainly on the symptoms. In high-altitude pulmonary edema, fluid can sometimes be heard in the lungs through a stethoscope. An x-ray of the chest and measurement of the amount of oxygen in the blood can help confirm the diagnosis.

Home Care

· Elevate your legs above your heart while lying down.
· Exercise your legs. This helps pump fluid from your legs back to your heart.
· Wear support stockings (sold at most drug and medical supply stores).

Relief and Prevention:

The hallmark of treatment is to reduce foot, leg and ankle swelling, and the first line of defense: leg elevation. Elevate legs above the level of the heart, which puts minimal pressure on the backs of the knees and thighs and lower back. Just sitting in a reclining chair in front of the TV is a great way to elevate your legs. Many products, for use at home or at work, can also help reduce swelling.
Treatment of edema focuses on correcting the cause of the fluid accumulation. A low-salt diet usually helps. You also should avoid drinking too much fluid. If you are not short of breath, elevate your legs above the level of your heart to keep swelling down. Your doctor might suggest that you take a low dose of a diuretic (water pill).

For swollen ankles and feet caused by pregnancy, elevate your legs and avoid lying on your back to help improve blood flow and decrease swelling.

Mitral Valve Prolapse Causes, Symptoms and Treatments

The mitral valve is a one-way valve in the left side of the heart that can be affected by two main malfunctions:

It can be stiff and heavily calcified and therefore does not open well, a condition known as Mitral Stenosis. It can have a severe leakage because of a deformity or localized rupture that prevents it from closing well, a condition known as Mitral Insufficiency or Regurgitation

The mitral valve is one of 4 valves in the heart. It opens and closes to control blood flow between the heart’s left atrium and the left ventricle. The mitral valve has 2 flaps, or “leaflets.”

In mitral valve prolapse, one or both leaflets of the valve are too large, or the chordae tendinea (the strings attached to the underside of the leaflets, connected to the ventricular wall) are too long (redundant), resulting in uneven closure of the valve during each heartbeat. Because of uneven closure of the leaflets, the valve bulges back, or “prolapses,” into the left atrium like a parachute. When this happens, a very small amount of blood may leak through, moving backward from the ventricle to the atrium.

The valve still works well, and the heart pumps normally. Prolapse does not cause damage to the heart over time. Only 2% of people have other structural heart problems along with mitral valve prolapse.

Previously called the most common heart valve abnormality, mitral valve prolapse was thought to have affected 5-20% of the general population, mainly women. Now with newer, wiser echocardiographic criteria, it is thought to affect only 2-3% of the general population, and it is most often diagnosed in people aged 20-40 years.

Mitral Valve Prolapse Causes:

Up to 40% of people have dysautonomia, an imbalance of the autonomic nervous system. This is the part of the nervous system that controls involuntary body functions such as breathing and the beating of the heart. This may lead to a large number of symptoms that seem serious to the person with the symptoms but are usually not serious (that is, they are not heart conditions).

Mitral Valve Prolapse Symptoms:

About 60% of people with mitral valve prolapse have no symptoms. A stressful situation, such as childbirth, job change, or viral illness, can bring on symptoms that may include the following:

Irregular heartbeat or palpitations, especially while lying on the left side

Chest pain – Sharp, dull, or pressing, lasting from a few seconds to several hours, usually not related to myocardial ischemia (that is, not a threatened heart attack)

Mitral Valve Prolapse Treatment:

Mitral valve prolapse usually requires no specific treatment, except reassurance, since most people do not have serious underlying heart disease. Rather, care focuses on minor changes a person can make that may prevent symptoms.

The condition usually requires no activity restrictions, but the person should avoid competitive sports if he has a definite click and murmur of significant mitral insufficiency. Most people have minimal, if any, mitral insufficiency.

Lacunar Stroke – Causes and Symptoms of Lacunar Stroke

Lacunar strokes can be defined as strokes in which a small branch of a larger blood vessel causes the stroke. Because of the way blood vessels divide in the brain, lacunar strokes tend to occur in areas located away from the surface of the brain, where many of the smaller branches of large blood vessels are located.

As most brain areas perform a limited set of brain functions, the collection of symptoms of a given lacunar stroke usually falls within one of five categories of symptoms known to be caused by damage in these areas.

Lacunar strokes can be defined as strokes of any cause, in which the blood vessel that causes the stroke is a small branch of a larger blood vessel. Lacunar strokes are typically located in “deep areas” of the brain (i.e., away from the surface of the brain), where many of the smaller branches of large blood vessels are located. Lacunar infarcts are small (0.2 to 15 mm3) noncortical infarcts caused by occlusion of a single penetrating branch of a large cerebral artery. These branches arise at acute angles from the large arteries of the circle of Willis, stem of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), or the basilar artery.

Causes of Lacunar Stroke
Diabetes mellitus is well recognized as a risk factor for development of small vessel disease throughout the body, including the penetrating arteries.

Lacunes are caused by occlusion of a single deep penetrating artery. The deep penetrating arteries are small nonbranching end arteries (usually smaller than 500 micrometers in diameter), which arise directly from much larger arteries (eg, the middle cerebral artery, anterior choroidal artery, anterior cerebral artery, posterior cerebral artery, posterior communicating artery, cerebellar arteries, basilar artery).

The accumulation of blood from a cerebral hemorrhage can also press on parts of the brain and cause damage. A subarachnoid hemorrhage is caused by the rupture of a blood vessel that is usually located between the outside of the brain and the inside of the skull. The blood vessel at the point of rupture is often previously abnormal, such as from an aneurysm (an abnormal ballooning out of the wall of the vessel).

Initially, lipohyalinosis was thought to be the predominant small vessel pathology of lacunes; however, microatheroma now is thought to be the most common mechanism of arterial occlusion (or stenosis). Occasionally, atheroma in the parent artery blocks the orifice of the penetrating artery (luminal atheroma), or atheroma involves the origin of the penetrating artery (junctional atheroma).

Symptoms of Lacunar Stroke

The symptoms of lacunar stroke vary depending on the part of the brain that is deprived of its blood supply. Different areas of the brain are responsible for different functions, such as sensation, movement, sight, speech, balance and coordination.

Symptoms and lacunar lesion(s), demonstrated by MRI, that were responsible for the symptoms. One-hundred and fifty control subjects with MRI-proven lacunar lesions without neurological symptoms served as controls. There was no significant difference in age, sex and prevalence of known risk factors between cases and controls.

It is possible that due to narrowed blood vessels the ongoing blood supply
to parts of your brain is inadaquete and this needs to be assessed.

A TIA can cause many of the same symptoms as a stroke, but TIA symptoms are transient and last for a few minutes or up to 24 hours. Call for medical help immediately if you suspect a person is having a TIA, as it may be a warning sign that a stroke is about to occur. Not all strokes, however, are preceded by TIAs.

Causes of Heart Attacks, Heart Attacks Symptoms

Heart attacks are the leading killers of both men and women in the United States. Today, fortunately, there are a number of treatments for heart attacks that can both save lives and prevent disabilities. Treatment is most effective when it is started within one hour of the beginning of symptoms. The minute symptoms of a heart attack occur or a person suspects a heart attack, it is important to dial 911 immediately.

Heart attacks seem to be sudden, but that’s not the truth. Signs and symptoms of a heart attack need to be recognized. These help in quick medical attention, as well as saving lives.

Heart attacks are emergency situations that require the immediate attention of medical services. As a first step in treatment, you need to stop the palpitation of the heart and transport the patient by ambulance to the nearest hospital. This vastly increases the chances of survival.

Major heart attack risk factors include a history of angina or vascular disease, a previous stroke or heart attack, old age, excessive alcohol, the abuse of illegal drugs, smoking, episodes of abnormal heart beat, obesity, high levels of stress, high or low cholesterol, high triglyceride levels, high blood pressure, and diabetes.

Heart attacks and medicines almost always appear in the same sentence. There are medicines to avoid and prevent heart attacks. This is brought to us by the technological advancement that man has achieved over the years. Although, some medicines before where proven to have negative effects when taken by a person with a heart condition, doctors try to warn their patients about them. Some medicines even cause heart complications.

Since heart attacks are the leading causes of death worldwide, knowing the signs could mean the difference between life and death. Contrary to some belief, heart attacks do not always have to be a “chest-grabbing” incident. Many people experiencing a heart attack actually thought it was just heart burn or chest muscle pains. And it doesn’t even have to be a one-time discomfort. You can experience recurring symptoms, which may feel mild one day and the next day severe, before an actual heart attack happens. So before you put yourself or your loved ones in serious dangers, here are some heart attack signs to look for.

People with a history of stroke, atherosclerotic heart disease or angina and abnormal heart rhythm have a higher risk of experiencing a heart attack. The disease mostly affects men over 40 years old and women over 50 years old. There are also medical and scientific studies stating that women who use contraceptive pills have a higher risk of a heart attack than those who does not use them. A person’s lifestyle can also increase chances of a heart attack. Smoking, drinking, drug abuse, presence of high triglyceride levels in the food you eat, high LDL levels and low HDL levels are some of the risk factors you should learn to avoid.

Heart Disease: Preventative Care

Heart disease encompasses a myriad of heart conditions, such as coronary artery disease, heart attack and heart failure, among other less common diseases. According to the Centers for Disease Control, heart disease is the leading cause of death in most ethnic groups throughout the U.S. These are harsh but real statistics that make heart health well worth addressing. Although heart disease isn’t 100 percent preventable, there are preventative measures, lifestyle changes, and other ways to keep you and your loved ones well, and your heart health at its best. It is also important to be aware of the signs and symptoms of heart disease, in order to seek treatment quickly and to ensure the best possible outcome if something goes wrong.

Coronary Artery Disease

According to the Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, coronary artery disease is a condition where plaque builds up in the coronary arteries, cutting off the supply of oxygen-rich blood to the heart. Coronary artery disease often results in heart attack, and is the leading killer of both men and women in the U.S. In 2006 alone, more than 600,000 people died from this disease — and those numbers continue to climb today.

Preventing Coronary Artery Disease

The most common type of heart disease in the U.S. is coronary artery disease (CAD), notes the Centers for Disease Control. The risk for coronary artery disease can be greatly reduced through certain lifestyle changes. The largest preventative factor is reducing cholesterol and blood pressure. Some of the lifestyle changes suggested for people at risk for CAD are exercise, a healthy diet, and maintaining a healthy weight. Some of the most common risk factors include diabetes, obesity or being overweight, and having high cholesterol and blood pressure.

If maintaining a healthy diet and exercise routine proves difficult for your loved one, find exercises that cater to their interests and physical abilities, such as a stroll through the park, a leisurely swim or water aerobics class, playing a game of tennis, practicing yoga, or biking. If appropriate, also consider low-impact, seated exercise, like the Sit And Be Fit program. Setting aside daily time for physical activity can be a great opportunity for you and your family to spend time with your loved one, or for them to meet friends with similar interests.

Although the above-mentioned lifestyle changes are not a 100 percent guarantee in preventing CAD, they can lead to a happier, healthier life for your loved one, and a more rapid recovery from illness and/or injury.

Signs & Symptoms of Coronary Artery Disease

The leading symptom of coronary artery disease is angina, more commonly known as chest pain. Angina can be experienced in a range of ways, from pain, pressure or even squeezing in the chest — but may also be felt in the shoulders, neck, arms or back, according to the Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. Shortness of breath, an irregular heartbeat and fatigue are also early signs of CAD. If you believe you may be suffering from coronary artery disease, consult your doctor promptly. It is important to see your doctor if you start experiencing symptoms, because a prompt diagnosis and immediate treatment means an easier recovery.

Heart Attack

A heart attack occurs when blood flow to a certain section of the heart is blocked. This blockage can result for any number of reasons, with the most frequent being plaque build-up and high cholesterol levels. The Heart, Lung and Blood Institute explains if any section of the heart doesn’t receive blood flow again — and quickly — it may suffer permanent damage and will often die. Each year, about 1.1 million people in the U.S. have heart attacks, and almost half of those heart attacks result in death.


Living a healthy lifestyle is the best way to prevent heart attack. The American Heart Association cites the following as the best preventative measures: quit smoking, choose good nutrition, reduce cholesterol, maintain daily physical activity and a healthy weight, manage diabetes, reduce stress and limit alcohol intake.

Some of these habits may be hard to break — but the best care you can give your loved one is to help them choose a healthy lifestyle by making obtainable daily goals. Exercise doesn’t have to mean time at the gym, it can be as simple as moving more. Good nutrition can start with small steps, such as drinking more water and choosing healthier grains. Embracing a healthy lifestyle requires a serious commitment, but the choice to live better is worth it.

Signs & Symptoms of a Heart Attack

In the event that you or a loved one suffers a heart attack, knowing the signs and symptoms can save your life. Most people commonly recognize chest pain as an indicator, but are not aware that many other symptoms can be present. The Centers for Disease Control lists the following as warning signs of a heart attack: chest pain lasting for more than a few minutes, or chest pain that comes and goes; pain or discomfort in one or both arms, the back, neck, jaw or stomach; shortness of breath; cold sweats; nausea; feeling light-headed. A heart attack feels different to each person. If you’re experiencing any of these symptoms and believe you’re having a heart attack, call 9-1-1 immediately. It is crucial to recognize the myriad of symptoms associated with a heart attack — in order to receive immediate treatment to save the heart and prevent further complications.

Heart Failure

As defined by the Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, heart failure occurs when the heart can’t pump enough blood throughout the body. Heart failure doesn’t mean that the heart has stopped, but it does mean that quick medical attention is a necessity. About 5.7 million people in the U.S. suffer from heart failure, resulting in about 300,000 deaths per year.


People at high risk for heart failure include diabetics, those who are obese, and those suffering from coronary artery disease. Whether you’re at risk or not, taking care of your heart to prevent heart failure is essential. The Heart, Lung and Blood Institute cites the following as key preventative measures: maintaining a healthy weight; eating a diet full of lean meats, beans, fruits and vegetables; avoiding saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium; refraining from smoking and heavy drinking; engaging in physical activity regularly. Following a heart-healthy diet, as well as exercising routinely will keep your loved one step ahead of heart failure. It is crucial to keep the heart muscle healthy in order to keep the rest of the body healthy.

Heart Failure Signs & Symptoms

If you’re suffering from heart failure, you’ll most likely notice certain signs and symptoms. The symptoms of heart failure are not as pronounced as those of a heart attack, and therefore go unnoticed, and often for long periods of time. If you’re fatigued, have shortness of breath, are experiencing swelling in the ankles, legs, abdomen and veins in the neck, you may be suffering from heart failure, explains the Centers for Disease Control. As the heart weakens, it may be exhausting for you to carry out simple daily tasks, like bathing or putting away laundry. If you’re experiencing any of these symptoms, consult a doctor as soon as possible.

There is no known cure for heart disease, heart attack, and heart failure, but preventing ailments of the heart can be as easy as basic lifestyle changes. As scientific research and medical studies continue to improve, the emphasis on exercise and a healthy diet grows. No matter your age, risk factors, or genetics, taking care to prevent heart disease and keep heart health optimal is essential.

Signs And Symptoms of Tuberculosis

Signs And Symptoms of Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis is a highly contagious disease that is transmitted during coughing and sneezing. It is a chronic infection caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sometimes other variants of Mycobacterium. It usually involves the lungs, but other organs of the body can also be involved.

During the 19th century, up to 25 per cent of deaths in Europe were caused by this disease. The death rate started to fall as living standards improved in the starting of the 20th century, and from the 1940s, effective medicines were developed. The disease is more common in areas of the world where poverty, malnutrition, poor general health and social disruption are present.

Some people having symptoms of tuberculosis even a long time before having disease but in some cases symptoms never develop in the affected person. People infected with tuberculosis disease may experience any of the following signs and symptoms:

A person having cough lasting from three and more weeks and also it may produce discolored sputum.
Person who is infected with tuberculosis faces a frequent or unintended loss in weight.
Person having fever most of the time who is caught by tuberculosis.
A tuberculosis infected people feels night sweating.
Tiredness and weakness are some of the common symptoms of tuberculosis.
If the infection in lungs reaches to the worst position it may result to pain in chest, back and kidneys.
Difficulty in breathing or shortness in breathe is also an important and main symptom of tuberculosis.
Sudden feeling of chills can be occurring if you are facing the problem of tuberculosis.
Tuberculosis also can target almost any part of your body, including your joints, bones, urinary tract, central nervous system, muscles, bone marrow and lymphatic system.

It depends which part of body is affected by TB, when TB occurs outside your lungs, signs and symptoms vary, depending on the organs involved. For example, tuberculosis of the spine may result in back pain, and if tuberculosis affects your kidneys might cause blood in your urine. Tuberculosis can also spread through your entire body, simultaneously attacking many organ systems.

Esophageal Cancer Metastasis, Best Natural Remedies

Esophageal cancer is a disease which affects the cells of the esophagus.  Our body is a structure made of various cell types.  Cells grow and divide to produce newer cells whenever required under normal circumstances for the functioning of the body to be healthy.  But sometimes the cells keep on dividing that the additional cells become tumor or extra growth.  These tumors can be either malignant or benign.  Benign tumors might not become cancer and can be removed easily.  They also do not spread to various body parts that they become life threatening very rarely.

Malignant tumors on the contrary are cancerous; they divide without any order or control.  Cancerous cells can most often invade and in turn destroy the tissues present around them.  They can also enter in to the lymphatic system or bloodstream.  This is called as the state of metastasis.  In the case of esophageal cancer metastasis, the cancerous cells spread to the exteriors of the esophagus and spreads to the lymph nodes first often.  And subsequently can spread to any body part including bones, brain, lungs and liver.  Most often esophageal cancer metastasis happens during the fourth stage of esophageal cancer.

Due to the increase in the number of esophageal cancer radical resections, the cancer’s pathology is getting very clearer.  Esophageal cancer which is limited to the lamina propria mucosae or mucosal epitheliums hardly show any vascular invasion or lymph node metasasis.  Depending on the results got out of different pre-operative examinations, appropriate type of treatment strategy is chosen.  Hence preoperative examinations are very necessary for the treatment selection process.

EMR is carried on patients with cancers with depth invasion limited to mucosal epithelium and lamina propria mucosae.  It is also performed on cancer patients with lamina muscularis mucosea or submucosa surface infiltration which are not accompanied by the lymph nodes that are enlarged and which are operable technically.  Once histopathologial findings (of resected specimens) are examined radical surgery as a treatment option is chosen.  Normally patients with suspicious metastasis of the lymph nodes would undergo three field lymphadenectomy (chest, abdomen and neck) with radical surgery.  Cancer patients with staging till T2 along with submucosa middle layer or deeper would undergo radical surgery.  But cancer patients who have high risk for operations and with poor health normally would undergo limiting esophagectomy.

Elderly cancer patients undergo esophagectomy using a right or left thoraco abdominal approach.  Superior mediastinum and lymphadenectomy in the neck is not completely performed.  Patients with remote organ metastasis would normally undergo radiation and chemo therapy.  And patients with more than one cancer in different organs might be treated using a well balanced combination of radiation and chemo therapy.

Natural Remedies:

There are certain natural remedies that offer a promising cure for esophageal cancer. Along with the natural remedies and a well-researched different diet pattern, a few simple adjustments to your lifestyle can make a huge difference to your efforts for prolonging the life for several years. You can increase your chances of surviving esophagus cancer now by trying these proven natural remedies discussed here

What is Pneumonia and What are the Main Causes of Pneumonia?


Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs most often caused by infection with bacteria or a virus. Pneumonia can make it hard to breathe because the lungs have to work harder to get enough oxygen into the bloodstream.

People with pneumonia usually complain of coughing, fever, shortness of breath, and chest pain.

Your body’s immune system usually keeps bacteria from infecting your lungs. In bacterial pneumonia, bacteria reproduce in your lungs, while your body tries to fight off the infection. This response to bacterial invaders is called inflammation.

When the inflammation occurs in the alveoli (microscopic air sacs in the lungs), they fill with fluid. Your lungs become less elastic and cannot take oxygen into the blood or remove carbon dioxide from the blood as efficiently as usual.When the alveoli don’t work efficiently, your lungs have to work harder to satisfy your body’s need for oxygen. This causes the feeling of being short of breath, which is one of the most common symptoms of pneumonia. Inflammation causes many of the other symptoms, including fever and chest pain.

What are the main types of pneumonia?

Pneumonia is often divided into two main categories (‘community-acquired pneumonia’ and ‘hospital-acquired pneumonia’) depending on whether you were infected while living at home (in the community) or while staying in hospital.

What are the main causes of pneumonia?

There are about 30 different causes of pneumonia. However, they all fall into one of these categories:

Infective pneumonia: Inflammation and infection of the lungs and bronchial tubes that occurs when a bacteria (bacterial pneumonia) or virus (viral pneumonia) gets into the lungs and starts to reproduce.

Aspiration pneumonia: An inflammation of the lungs and bronchial tubes caused by inhaling vomit, mucous, or other bodily fluids. Aspiration pneumonia can also be caused by inhaling certain chemicals.

White blood cells (leukocytes), a key part of your immune system, begin to attack the invading organisms. The accumulating pathogens, white cells and immune proteins cause the air sacs to become inflamed and filled with fluid, leading to the difficult breathing that characterizes many types of pneumonia. If both lungs are involved, it’s called double pneumonia.

Viruses, bacteria, or (in rare cases) parasites or other organisms cause pneumonia.

In most cases, the specific organism (such as bacteria or virus) cannot be identified even with testing. When an organism is identified, it is usually the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Other bacteria that may cause pneumonia include Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila (the bacteria that cause Legionnaires’ disease), Staphylococcus aureus, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Neisseria meningitidis, or Klebsiella pneumoniae. Mycoplasma pneumonia is sometimes mild and called walking pneumonia.

Some other reasons of causing pneumonia:

Viral infection
Bacterial infection:
Streptococcus pneumonia
Staphylococcus aureus
Chlamydia pneumoniae
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Pneumocystis carinii
Toxoplasma gondii
Fungal infection
Lung cancer- can cause recurrent pneumonia
AIDS- can lead to recurring lung infections
hemophilus influenza
mycoplasma pneumonia
staphyloccus aureus
streptococcus pneumonia
pneumocystis carinii
acid fast bacillus

Treatment of Pleurisy

Pleurisy, also known as pleuritis, is an inflammation of the pleura, the lining of the pleural cavity surrounding the lungs, which can cause painful respiration (also called pleuritic chest pain) and other symptoms. Pleurisy can be generated by a variety of infectious and non-infectious causes. The effects of pleurisy can often be felt long after the condition has gone away.

Pleurisy, also called pleuritis, is an inflammation of the pleura, which is the moist, double-layered membrane that surrounds the lungs and lines the rib cage. The condition can make breathing extremely painful. Sometimes it is associated with another condition called pleural effusion, where excess fluid fills the area between the membrane’s layers.
The outer layer of the pleura lines the inside of the chest wall, and the inner layer covers the lungs. The tiny space between the two layers is called the pleural cavity. This cavity normally contains a small amount of lubricating fluid that allows the two layers to slide over each other when you breathe.

Signs and symptoms

When an accumulation of fluids (pleural effusion) is associated with pleurisy, the pain usually disappears because the fluid serves as a lubricant. However, if enough fluid accumulates, it puts pressure on your lungs and interferes with their normal function, causing shortness of breath. If the fluid becomes infected, the signs and symptoms of dry cough, fever and chills may appear. An infected pleural effusion is called an empyema.
Chest pain: This is the most common symptom. The pain is generally a sharp, stabbing pain, but may also be a dull ache or a burning sensation. It is usually worse when you take a deep breath, cough, or move around. The pain is usually better if you take shallow breaths or lie on the side that hurts. Chest pain is what usually causes people with pleurisy to seek medical attention.

Causes  of Pleurisy

Pulmonary embolism:  blood clot inside the blood vessels to the lungs. These clots sometimes severely reduce blood and oxygen to portions of the lung and can result in death to that portion of lung tissue (termed lung infarction). This, too, can cause pleurisy.

Trauma: rib fractures or irritation from chest tubes used to drain air or fluid from the pleural cavity in the chest

Pneumonia, in those cases in which the infected portion of the lung involves the pleural surface
Autoimmune conditions, such as lupus, rheumatoid arthritis and autoimmune hepatitis

Treatment of Pleurisy

The most important goal in relieving pleurisy or pleural effusion is treatment of the underlying condition that’s causing your signs and symptoms. For example, if the cause of pleurisy is a bacterial infection of your lung (pneumonia), an antibiotic may control the infection. But, for pleurisy due to a viral infection, antibiotics won’t be effective. Most viral infections run their course without treatment.

When larger amounts of fluid must be removed, a chest tube may be inserted through your chest wall. The doctor injects a local painkiller into the area of your chest wall outside where the fluid is. He or she will then insert a plastic tube into your chest between two ribs. The tube is connected to a box that suctions the fluid out. A chest x ray is taken to check the tube’s position.

Treating the source

The treatment used to cure pleurisy is ultimately defined by the underlying cause. Thus, pleurisy from a bacterial infection can be successfully treated with antibiotics, while no treatment is given for viral infections that must run their course. Specific therapies designed for more chronic illnesses can often cause pleurisy to subside.

Bronchitis or Chest Cold

Bronchitis is an inflammation and irritation of the airways that lead to the lungs. Its usual cause is the invasion of viruses. It can also be caused by bacteria and exposure to cigarette smoke or air pollution.

The inflammation caused by acute bronchitis is not permanent. It goes away when the infection or irritation goes away.

Symptoms of bronchitis usually begin several days after an upper respiratory infection, such as a cold or a sinus infection. Symptoms often include:

– a dry cough that may produce sputum,

– mild fever,

– fatigue,

– discomfort or tightness in the chest, and

– wheezing

Having bronchitis and another lung disease such as asthma, may increase your risk of pneumonia. Frequent lung infections, especially in a person who smokes, may lead to the development of chronic bronchitis. Tobacco smokers are also at a high risk for developing emphysema. Chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and other lung conditions, such as asthma, are known as chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.

Most cases of bronchitis can be managed with home treatment. These are some steps you can do to prevent complications and feel better:

  1. Drink 8 – 12 glasses of water per day. Liquids help thin out mucous in the lungs so it can be coughed out
  2. Get some extra rest. Let your energy go to healing.
  3. To help relieve aches and pains, there are over the counter medications like aspirin, acetaminophen and ibuprofen that you can take.
  4. To quiet a dry hacking cough and help you sleep, use a non prescription cough suppressant that contains dextrpmetorphan. Avoid cough suppressants that contain more than 1 active ingredient.
  5. Breathe moist air from a humidifier, vaporizer, hot shower, or a sink filled with hot water. The heat and moisture will help thin out mucous so it can be coughed out.
  6. If you have other symptoms that may suggest you have the flu, treat these symptoms first and reassess your symptoms after 48 hours.

The following symptoms may mean that your lung infection is getting worse and it is time to see your doctor because you may be developing a bacterial lung infection:

– cough with wheezing or difficulty in breathing

– bloody cough

– cough that lasts more than 14 days especially if it produces sputum

– dry hacking cough that lasts several weeks following a cold or sinus infection

– prolonged fever

Your doctor may prescribe an inhaler to open your airways. Antibiotics will also be prescribed if you have a secondary bacterial infection.

Inhaled medicines are usually prescribed for bronchitis. These drugs include bronchodilators like albuterol and ipratropium that help open your airways and clear out mucous. An oral bronchodilator and steroids (either inhaled or oral) are often also necessary. If you have low oxygen levels, home oxygen will be used.

If you have acute bronchitis, symptoms usually go away within 7 to 10 days if you do not have an underlying lung disorder. However, a dry, hacking cough can linger for a number of months. The chance for recovery is poor for persons with advanced chronic bronchitis. Early recognition and treatment significantly improve the chance of good outcome. If you are a smoker, quitting also lessens the risk of complications.

This composition is projected to inform readers about sinus infection bronchitis symptoms. For more topics about treating your sinusitis you can visit Sinusitis – Sinus Dynamics.

Home Remedies For Bronchitis

Bronchitis is a condition defined as the inflammation of the bronchi which results in persistent cough that produces considerable quantities of sputum. A respiratory infection such as a cold is the initial stage of the development of bronchitis. Bronchitis usually disappears within a few days without lasting effects in most people, however the coughs due to bronchitis can continue for up to three weeks or more.

Types of Bronchitis:

There are two forms of bronchitis, the acute and the chronic bronchitis. The most common of the two is the acute bronchitis form. This is the result of an infection with a virus or bacteria. Acute bronchitis is in most of the cases a consequence of an infection in the upper respiratory system.

Symptoms of Bronchitis:

The symptoms of bronchitis infection are an expectorant cough, fever, headache, fatigue, shortness of breath and wheezing. The last two symptoms are as a result of the airways blocking as the phlegm piling up in them.

Causes of Bronchitis:

Treatment of bronchitis usually depends on the cause. The causes can be smoking, air pollution bacteria and viral pathogens. Viruses such as coronarvirus, adenovirus, or a rhinovirus, that attack the lining of the bronchial tree is one of the major causes of bronchitis.

Treatment of Bronchitis:

1] Aromatherapy is one of the widely used bronchitis natural remedy which involve inhaling the eucalyptus oil that provides some relief from the inflamed lungs.

2] Cayenne pepper is one of the other best bronchitis natural remedies which helps break up the congestion and help you get quicker relief.

3] One of the other natural remedies for bronchitis is a tea prepared by mixing both garlic and ginger which when taken for three to four times a day helps cure the symptoms effectively.

4] A tea made from an herb called creosote bush is one of the natural remedy for bronchitis widely used to cure bronchitis and other respiratory problems.

5] One of the other natural treatment for bronchitis that help soothe the throat and stop the muscle spasms that trigger coughs is a herb called mullien having expectorant properties.

6] Tulsi (Holy Basil Ocimum sanctum), adathoda (Adathoda vasika), linseed, etc are used in the treatment of bronchitis.

7] Use of turmeric powder is considered to be one of the most effective and helpful remedies for bronchitis symptoms.

8] Treatment of bronchitis symptoms can be done successfully with the help of ginger.

9] The treatment of bronchitis symptoms with onion has been regarded as an age-old remedy.

10] Bronchitis can be easily treated with spinach. Just mix about 50 grams of fresh spinach leaves in about 250 ml of water and mix some ammonium chloride and a teaspoonful of honey.

11] Mix about a teaspoon of sesame seeds with a teaspoon of linseed and a pinch of common salt and one teaspoon of honey.

12] When suffering from sickness due to bronchitis, you need to take an emulsion of almonds.

13] Chicory also known as endive is one of the most effective home remedies for bronchitis.

14] If you drink alcohol and coffee regularly, you should stop their consumption immediately.

15] You should also reduce smoking; if possible, completely abstain from it.

16] Your body needs a lot of energy in order to cure bronchitis. For this reason, you should take a complete bed rest so as to save all of your energy.

17] Treatment of bronchitis caused by bacteria can be done using antibiotics.

18] Epsom-salt baths are also recommended for those with bronchitis, especially of the acute variety.

Read About Home Remedies also Read about Home Remedies for Bone Spurs and Home Remedies for Bronchitis

TMJ Lockjaw – Facts On TMJ Dislocation

The Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) allows you to open and close your mouth. Hence, you are able to speak, chew, bite in, grind and clench your teeth with the help of this joint. It is a very delicate joint located in the front part of the ears and connects the lower jaw to the skull.

In case of any tension or pressure created on the TMJ the individual can experience what is known as the TMJ disorder. This is accompanied with pain, inflammation, popping of the jaw out of the socket when the disc slips as well as TMJ lockjaw.

As well as this disk, it may involve the muscles, joints and ligaments of the jaw. So it is important to get some help for this right a way so that it does not get too bad.

With TMJ dislocation, one can suffer from the open lockjaw and/or the closed lockjaw. A lock jaw is exactly what the name suggests; your jaws are locked rendering you unable to move them until they have been unlocked. In case of open lock jaw the patient is sedated into relaxation so that the Dentist can move the open jaw up, forward or backward until the disc has settled on the socket and the ball is in place.

If it is a case of a closed lock jaw then the patient has to be completely asleep. Once this is achieved then the doctor can massage the triangular hollow beneath the earlobes and slowly increase the pressure on them. Hot compress is also a good idea in such a situation. Eventually the jaw can be pried open very gently.

Most people who suffer from this problem grind or clench their teeth both consciously or subconsciously.

Don’t Wait To Start Working On Your Jaw Problem

Again, I will stress that at the first signs of a problem with your jaw, it is good to start some therapies.

Acupressure on certain points around the jaw may be helpful. One can sometimes find acupressure books with these points listed.

To help reduce a spasm, you may find that moist heat applied to the jaw is helpful. Just apply a moist hot washcloth to the face and remoisten it when it gets cool. Try this for 10 minutes a few times a day and see what it will do for you.


Traumatic injuries cause damage to tissues. The incidental rupturing of ancillary and primary blood vessels supplying these tissues internally bleed at the site of trauma. The blood supplies normally bring nutrients, oxygen, and remove waste materials and metabolic by-products from tissues. With damage, the delicate piping systems of blood vessels rupture at smaller capillary, aterioli, venule, and even in larger blood vessels yielding profuse bleeding. This bleeding is what causes the swelling at the site of the injury. The injury is enclosed within the skin creating increased fluid/blood pressure inside the body. When the traumatic site fills and expands with bleeding, it tamponades the traumatic site. This occurs by increasing he site’s inner body pressure at or above the person’s normal blood pressure. This pressure is what finally stops the bleeding naturally.

The heart pumps blood out to the tissues in the arteries. About 99% of all blood pumped out of the heart is returned by the venous return system. Being an enclosed plumbing system, the arterial pressure via the capillary bed drives the blood back to the heart by the pressure in the enclosed venous system. The generally low negative right-sided heart, allows natural decreased pressures to direct blood from the venous systems back into the heart. This allows the blood to be re-circulated and be pumped again and again by the heart.

LYMPHATICS:  In addition to the heart, artery, and venous systems, there is a passive lymphatic pip system form the tissue sites back to the heart. This lymphatic system acts as a cleaning sewage system allowing extra fluid not removed by the veins to drain from the capillary beds and trauma site, via the venous system, and finally to the heart. Lymphatic vessels have one-way valves and pumps. These passive pumps called lymph nodes are located behind joints or at sites of pressure from physical movement. They are much like a hose with a bulb and a valve attached to another hose. When the bulb is squeezed, the system pumps fluid in one direction only-towards the heart. When a joint is flexed and extended, the bulb is naturally compressed and it pumps moving fluids from the distal extremity towards the heart. This naturally removes blood, fluid, and potential infections fluid from the site or injury. This reduces the on-site pressure after bleeding is stopped to allow new circulation and healing.

THE DEFINITION OF ELEVATION: The definition of elevation of a traumatic point is applied by measuring from the floor directly vertical to the heart. Then measure from the floor directly vertical to the site of injury. This means that the point of injury should be elevated approximately 12-16 inches higher that the position of the heart at any time and from any position, i.e. sitting in the chair with your foot on an ottoman if the foot is the site of injury IS NOT ELEVATION. The distance to the floor from the foot must be less than the heart to the floor. However, laying flat on a couch with your foot up high on the back of the couch at the head level IS elevation of a traumatic site decreasing pain and removing the fluids.


  • ELEVATION: All traumatic injuries should be elevated 12-16 inches immediately from the time of injury to decrease bleeding and capillary pressure. This is most critical the first 3-5 days after the injury. If you do not have elevation, this is the cause of the thumping and pounding of your heart in the new injury site causing swelling.
  • ICE decreases circulation at an injury site. Ice should be placed gently against the wound of 5-20 minutes per hour as tolerated for at least the first 5-7 days and depending on the injury 10-12 after the injury. Ice in an ice bag or blue ice pack should have at least 1-2 layer of a thick towel. You don’t want to burn or freeze health superficial tissues and cause other substantial secondary damage.
  • HEAT is good only after 7-12 days. This time allows the ripped blood vessels to heal by increasing the circulation. Early heat to a new acute injury will definitively increase bleeding, swelling, and pain and will lengthen the recovery time. Heat should only be on low, not hot, with gentle warming. I.e. a heating pad on low heat with at least 1-2 layer of a thick terrycloth towel.
  • MOVEMENT of joints closer toward the heart occasionally with elevation, pumps traumatic fluids away from the injury. After several days, movement and pumping of lymphatics reverses swelling at the site and promotes healing and circulation.
  • ACE: An external ace bandage gently and lightly applied may compress a new injury, stopping or slowing the bleeding and controlling the injury. Light compression with an ace bandage stops the bleeding by compressing the wound and should NEVER be place on tight.
  • IMMOBILIZATION: A fracture, tendinous strain/pull-partial or complete rip must be initially immobilized with a splint. Splints decrease movement so further bleeding or damage doesn’t occur. The most distal site beyond the injury, i.e. the finger and toes, should always be exposed (splinting permitted) to check to see that there is good distal capillary refill.

DISTAL CAPILLARY REFILL: Squeezing a finger or a toe between the thumb and index finger for 2-3 seconds and getting a whitish blanching under the nail tests for distal capillary refill. Suddenly removing then.

John Drew Laurusonis

Doctors Medical Center