How Diesel Fuel Injectors Work

The diesel market continues to grow from year to year as the need for reliable light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles increases mostly in secondary and third world countries. As infrastructure improves across the world so does the need for dependable work trucks. J.D. Power and Associates predicts that diesel sales will more than triple in the next 10 years accounting for more than 10% of all vehicle sales up from 3.6% just 10 years ago in 2005. From the year 2000 to 2005 diesel registrations increased over 80% exceeding 550,000 vehicles. From 2005 to 2015 that number further increased another 67%.

How Fuel Injectors Work

Fuel injectors are small electrical components that are used to deliver fuel via a spray directly into the intake manifold in front of the intake valve in a diesel engine. Diesel fuel injectors are quite complicated; the injector has a high micron filter on the top inlet side which corresponds to small hypodermic sized holes on the bottom for the atomizing of the diesel fuel. The diesel fuel acts as a lubricating source for the injector’s internal parts. The main source of failure for injectors is water in the fuel. When water in the fuel displaces the lubricating properties the internal parts wear down quickly and the injector as a whole can fail rather quickly.

Injectors are an extremely important engine component. The injector valve opens and closes at the same rpm as the diesel engine. Typical RPM for diesel engines in North America is around 1800. This equates to roughly 140,000 times per hour! In addition to water in the fuel, injectors are subjected to carbon and dirt particles introduced into the unit via a bad air cleaner element. The type of fuel, grade and additives used also has a significant impact on the life expectancy of the fuel injector. The ECM (Engine Control Module) controls the fuel injectors in most electrical diesel engines. The diesel injectors constantly have power when the key is turned on regardless if the engine is turned over. The ECM grounds the injector, completing the circuit and causing the injector nozzle to open. The ECM after receiving information from various control sensors determines the length of time the injectors need to be grounded to inject the exact amount of fuel given the horsepower output demand from the engine.

The process of diesel injectors opening, closing and dispensing the correct amount of fuel happens in milliseconds. Injector cycle firing is on average completed in 1.5 to 5 milliseconds. Diesel fuel injectors come in different shapes and sizes depending on the engine make and model as well as power demand. Automotive injectors are quite a bit smaller than heavy-duty diesel applications and are measured in cubic inches. There are two types of diesel fuel injectors: the first is called throttle body injection where 1-2 injectors are located in the throttle body itself in the diesel engine and supply a metered amount of mist fuel spray into the intake manifold. This delivery system essentially charges the intake and the intake valve draws the fuel into the cylinder of the engine. The second delivery system, known as individual port type fuel injector, is newer and more fuel efficient. Port type of injection is more efficient than a carburetor since it adjusts to air density and altitude and is not reliant on the manifold vacuum.

With throttle spray injection inefficiency comes when the cylinders closest to the injectors having a better mixture than the ones furthest away. With port type of injection this flaw is eliminated by injecting the same amount of fuel to each cylinder in the engine.

Pieces of an Injector

Each fuel injector is a little different but they all have 15 main parts including the filter, guide ring, core spring, seat spring, seat, pole piece, stop, solenoid coil, solenoid body, core ring, core, spray tip housing, director and spray tip. The fuel flow is regulated by the ECM by raising a ball off its seat. This allows fuel flow through the seat orifice and then out through a fixed director plate with several holes. The director plate serves to direct the fuel spray pattern. This type of injector has 10 to 15 degree angle spray pattern. The fuel atomization of this type of injector is similar to the disc type injector. Disc and ball type injectors by design and less susceptible to clogging.

Diesel Fuel injectors come in a variety of shapes and sizes as well as working conditions. Any good machine shop can can help you identify which type of fuel injector is right for your diesel engine. Know the difference between New, OEM, Refurbished, Remanufactured and Used Injectors. Any injector should come with a warranty and quality control paperwork.

Monkshood or Aconite – Beware the Blue Plant

Aconitum napellus (Ranunculaceae)


A majestic plant sporting unforgettable blue} blossoms bloom in mid summer season. This stately garden perennial achieves a height of 60 cms (2 ft) with unique deeply green firm leaves placed horizontally and deeply separated.One of several garden cultivars really worth developing with regard to herb garden beautification is ‘Bressingham Spire’;reaching a height of 90 cms (3ft). The specific title napellus means ‘little turnip’ and represents the particular form of the underlying tuber. Every root lasts just 12 months; a new child produced alongside the parent tuber preserves the plant. Every aspect of the plant is utilized; the top level growth is usually gathered in summer season and the root during autumn or fall.


A very poisonous herb garden plant native to mountainous areas throughout northern temperate areas, monkshood was grown as a therapeutic plant for many years. In medieval times monkshood provided a toxin employed for tipping arrows as well as baiting wolves around medieval Europe, therefore earning them the name of ‘Wolf’s Bane’. Afterwards it grew to become referred to as monkshood and also helmet flower in recognition of its hooded blossom. Winthrop’s seed order from America in 1631 calls it ‘munkhoods.’


It’s toxicity necessitates that it always be prescribed exclusively under professional medical supervision. Homeopathic products are utilized in the treatment of sciatica as well as neuralgia since the drug acts on the central nervous system.


Plant the seed the moment it is ripe, while taking care not to assume impressive results since these herb garden plants tend to be sluggish to set up via seed. Separating a new child tuber and planting it out in the autumn (fall) is going to be faster and most likely more profitable. Planting may be performed relatively late into the winter, nonetheless it needs to be done prior to the stem bud bursts into emergence – which takes place quite soon in the spring. Pick a well spaded moisture-retentive environment someplace where you can find dappled shade. Monkshood prefers the less humid zones and it is winter season hardy, but it may require overhead shelter in low temperature locations.

How to Cure a Cold Sore

How to cure a cold sore? What is the best way to cure a cold sore? Cold sores are caused by the herpes simplex virus type 1, and they’re contagious. A cold sore is called herpes labialis, generally affects the mouth on the lips and face and once you are infected with it, the virus lies dormant in the nerve cells in your skin. Though the virus stays dormant most of the time, certain things such as stress, fever, menstruation, certain types of foods, and overexposure from sun or wind may trigger a recurrence can cause an outbreak.

The signs and symptoms of cold sores include itching and soreness in a day or two, before small, painful, red blisters appears on the lips.

A cold sore is contagious and the best you should do is preventing spread them to other parts of your body or to avoid spreading them along to another person.

These are a few steps how to preventing spread the virus:

– Keep your hand always clean.

– don’t rub to your eye or genital after touching the blister.

– Avoid kissing when you have a blister.

– Avoid triggers such as stress, some of certain of food, wind, and sun.

– Don’t share the item that can spread the virus.

– Avoid squeezing, pinching or picking at any blister.

How to cure a cold sore?

There are many cures for cold sore, One of the cures of cold sore is OTC (over-the-counter) medications, they offer to relief your cold sore pains and itchy, but they don’t cure the virus completely. OTC medications are good for pain relief and may shorten the duration of cold sores. OTC medications include cream (Aloe Vera and vitamin E), OTC pain relief (aspirin, acetaminophen and ibuprofen).

Consult your doctor if the cold sores don’t heal within one to two weeks on their own, symptoms become severe, frequent outbreaks of cold sores, irritation to your eyes. Your doctor may recommend you to take the antiviral medicines. . Anti-viral medications are probably the most effective cold sore treatments for most people, they have proven to be beneficial at stopping the virus while using the medications, but do not prevent recurrence once the treatment is stopped.

One the best cure for cold sore that you should know is natural home remedies. There are natural cure for cold sore such some of herbs and vitamins as, L-lysine, olive leaf extract, red marine algae, lavender, myrrh, sage, and that have proven to be effective a cold sore cure and help reduce recurrence. Natural home remedies to cure a cold sore focuses on relieve the symptoms, decrease the risk of recurrent outbreaks, and helping you cope with a lifelong condition. They have no dangerous side effects to use natural home remedies to cure a cold sore. The complete treatment solution to cold sore is using natural remedies.

Cold sore is caused by virus which cannot be cured and it remains in the body for life. But with effective cold sore cure, it doesn’t have to get in the way of living. And one of the major goals when living with cold sore is to lead a healthy life and not spread the virus to someone else.

© How to Cure A Cold Sore

Shampoo for Itchy Scalp and Hair Loss

There are many things that can cause your scalp to itch, problems can range from the hair products you use, to dry scalp to something more serious like DHT. One good thing, is that hair loss is not permanent if treated correctly, another term for this is called scalp dysesthesia. Now lets talk about some things that can cause itchy scalp or hair loss.

Itchy Scalp

Everyone has natural oils in there scalp that helps regulate it. This oil is refereed to as sebum. Sebum helps shield the hair from tip to root from harmful environment factors. At the same time it helps lock in vitamins and minerals keeping the hair healthy, think of the sebum as the hair’s umbilical cord that helps keep the hair happy and healthy. Even though sebum is good for your hair, if your body makes too much sebum it can cause major problems for your hair and scalp. Combine this with other things like hair product build up and dirt/gunk, all of this can add up to some serious problems.

Sebum Build Up Can Cause

  • Scalp Swelling and Sores
  • Itching and Flaking
  • Bacterial and Fungal Problems

Itchy scalp can also be cause by an allergic reaction to an outside factor, hair color or chemicals you use on a daily basis. Your scalp is very sensitive so it is easy to damage it, if you are not treating it properly. Over time this can lead to your hair growing slow and eventually starting to thin and fall out. If you start to get sores on your scalp that are around hair follicles, that is what is happening.

Fungus can come into play as well, fungi can live off of the oils on the scalp and show up as irritated patches of itchy skin. Another thing that can effect your scalp and skin is Psoriasis. It appears as scaly spots on the skin and scalp, that itches bad and put off big white flakes.  Finally itchy scalp can also be caused by stress. If you are under a large amount of stress and start to get flakes, that may be why.

How to Stop Hair Loss

Look for a shampoo that not only makes your hair feel good but your scalp as well. Look for a clarifying shampoo that will help regulate oil and wash away product build up, which can cause itchy scalp. Wash your hair more often so that it does not stay as oily. Look for vitamins that contain omega 6,9 and 12, these can help nourish hair and keep it healthy. If your body is low on these vitamins it will slow down hair growth. Eat healthy such as nuts and whole grains these can help boost hair as well.

Try to eat as many dark green vegetables as possible, and protein helps build strong vibrant hair as well. There are many oils which can help as well like tea tree, argan, rosemary, lavender, jojoba, emu and aloe oil can have healing and soothing properties which can help restore hairs health and keep it strong.

Cleaning the Ears

When it comes to the attention people give to their ears, it can be seen how there is a lack of proper care with 12 million Americans not getting treatment out of the 16 million who are suffering from hearing loss. Here’s a rundown on some of the most common ear problems. Because of ear wax the ear canal is safeguarded from particles. People may have glands that make more ear wax than what is hygienic and this can easily lead to a problem with hearing loss.

It is also a problem when there is swimmer’s ear. The medical name for this usually mild condition is external otitis. When a person swims in overcrowded pools or those with too much chlorination then this can develop if the ears are not dried well. Milder cases may disappear on their own, but severe cases may require antibiotics, so it’s best to see a doctor.

Much trouble is associated with a perforated eardrum. From the ear canal the eardrum works by being the membrane that transmits sound waves to the middle ear. From the ear opening, it is much close than people know and this means that inserting something in the ear, an infection, or a blow to the head can all cause probably damage to it. For smaller perforations no surgery is necessary for they can heal on their own. Nausea, vomiting, and dizziness can also be some side effects from this other than a loss of hearing.

Ear Infections are common among children. Children are particularly susceptible to infections of the middle ear known medically as otitis media. From the population of American children, 50 percent are infected before they reach two years old. Infections in the nose and throat can cause these conditions to manifest and may they be chronic or acute they can equally be caused by illnesses like the mumps, measles, and flu. When it comes to acute otitis media, there will be severe earaches and fever. It is usually treated with antibiotics. Possible with chronic otitis media is a loss of hearing

A case of Otosclerosis is when bone grows within the framework of the middle ear, this is hereditary. When the movement of sound through the stapes, a small bone in the middle ear, is affected hearing loss is a result. One option is to have surgery done. Possible nerve damage is associated with this affecting the inner ear. This stage offers little chance for recovery. Common in more women than men, this affects people between the ages of 16 and 40. From hearing loss, there is tinnitus or a ringing in the ears.

People who experience hissing, roaring, or whining sounds may be experiencing a case of tinnitus or a ringing in the ears. Some 37 million Americans are affected and more than seven million are actually incapacitated by this ailment. A method to treat the mildest cases is cleaning the ears removing the ear wax by the eardrums. From problems in the middle ear to fluid or perforations in the eardrums, more severe conditions may arise.

Other than Otosclerosis, the following namely diabetes, thyroid malfunctions, anemia, low blood pressure, allergies, infections, equilibrium, middle ear injuries, and even arthritis can bring about some of the noises. The exact location should be found for elimination to be possible. When tinnitus is in the inner ear, it is severe. Limited diagnosis associated with this hard to reach area. Tumors that press on nerves can easily cause this to happen in the same way as infections, circulatory disturbances, cochlea or hearing center problems, and allergy induced fluid accumulation in the inner ear can.

Later on in life, there is Meniere’s Disease to deal with. From drugs to diseases and even stress as well as allergies and infections can lead to an imbalance in equilibrium after the inner ear is disturbed. There is mild deafness in an ear. Such a syndrome can be associated with vertigo and a loss of balance not to mention nausea and vomiting. In order to treat this, drugs, surgery, and a proper diet is involved.

Verbal Aggression Can Be As Harmful As Physical Violence – There Is A Simple Way To Defend Yourself

Verbal aggression can be just as hurtful as physical violence, but there is a simple technique you can use to defend yourself.

Countless books on martial arts have been written, describing a variety of very effective ways to defend yourself against physical attacks. But for the person often subjected regularly to a verbal onslaught of rude – and even crude – insulting, offensive remarks, very little advice is available.

Although verbal aggression leaves no physical scars, there is no doubt that the mental and emotional damage can be just as damaging.

The offensive remarks can take many forms. The demeaning and hurtful comments don’t necessarily have to be delivered in the form of a vituperative, loud, bad-tempered outburst by someone who has completely lost control. The remarks could be softly spoken, snide, sarcastic comments made by a person who derives a great deal of sadistic pleasure from inflicting as much emotional pain as possible.

No matter what form the verbal aggression takes, there is generally a common purpose – to make the recipient of the verbal onslaught feel small and inferior.

The verbal aggression frequently continues over a lengthy period. This may be due to a number of reasons. Very often victims are unable to defend themselves because they are often subservient, and in some way defendant – perhaps financially – on the person making the insulting remarks.

There are many instances where bullying supervisors or managers continually subject employees to continual harsh and unwarranted criticism. The employees feel powerless to do anything about the situation for fear of losing their jobs.

This verbal aggression can take place anywhere. It is just as common in the board room at meetings of Directors as it is on the factory floor.

Very often verbal aggression occurs in the home, between married couples or partners. Here again the intention is usually a mean and vindictive desire to inflict pain- in this case emotional pain.

The verbal aggression continues because the victims do not know how to defend themselves adequately. They have not learned the defensive techniques.

When a child is subjected to continual teasing by someone physically bigger, stronger or older and feels powerless to deal with the emotional bullying, the usual advice given by a parent is to quote the idiom. “Sticks and stones can break your bones, but words will never hurt you”.

But, as everyone knows, words can definitely hurt, and very often the emotional pain is far more severe than the physical pain – which is often only temporary.

There is a technique that can be easily learned – by young and old. It is very effective. Basically it involves a way to ridicule the person guilty of the verbal aggression. It also involves an ability to completely disregard and ignore the irritating, annoying, insulting, or offensive comments being made.

This technique of completely ignoring comments you have no wish to hear, involves teaching yourself a special skill – the ability to assume a state of “convenient deafness”.

This is a skill that is not as difficult to learn as you might imagine. In fact it is a skill you probably had as a child, but with the passage of time you have lost it.

Children have a remarkable capacity for assuming a state of “convenient deafness” when its suits their purpose. If, for example, they are deeply engrossed in watching a thrilling T.V. program, and so focused on the exciting events, repeated orders by parents to switch off the Television, will be met by deaf ears.

Let me give you details of a technique I learnedmany years ago that involves focus of a different kind. This technique has stood me in very good stead over the years. I have always found it remarkably effective, not only in diffusing situations that could easily have become nasty, had I responded to outbursts of uncontrolled bad temper, but also in enabling me to deal with potentially difficult situations without being in any way stressed or upset.

Whenever I happened to be faced with a situation that involved someone attacking me verbally and making insulting remarks, I would suddenly become completely silent. I wouldn’t say a word. Then I would smile; slowly lift my hand and make a point of touching my ear.

Then I would repeat the following little verse silently to myself, over and over again, while continuing to smile:

” Funny noises from your mouth

I switch off and ignore

And focus my attention

On the movements of your jaw!”

I would focus on the movements of the offending person’s jaw with obvious, intense concentration as if it was the only thing I was really interested in.

My actions made it very easy for me to develop “convenient deafness” and “switch off” completely. I never heard, listened to, or tried to understand any of the sounds coming from the person’s mouth. It was just a babble of unintelligible noise.

After a while it became quite obvious that I wasn’t listening to a word that was being said; nor was it affecting me in any way.

The shouting stopped and the person would storm away in frustration.

I was not stressed, upset or disturbed in any way by the outburst.

Try this simple but every effective technique whenever you are faced with instances of verbal aggression. With a little practice you will master it. You’ll find that you can “switch off” without much effort. The more you use it, the more proficient you’ll become. You’ll find it as useful as I have.

Communication in Healthcare Between Doctor and Patient

Doctor/patient communication in healthcare is the exchange of information between the two parties for evaluating a patient’s health, diagnosing a health condition(s) and treating a health condition(s). The communication is bidirectional in that information is exchanged from doctor to patient and from patient to doctor. The communication can be direct or indirect, depending upon the health literacy, cognitive state and the communicative capacity of the patient.

The communication in healthcare that occurs from doctor to patient includes the exchange of information regarding test results, a recent diagnosis or diagnoses, prognosis and treatment instructions. Patient education to increase a patient’s understanding of test results, a diagnosis or diagnoses, factors determining prognosis and treatment options is also a part of communication in healthcare between doctor and patient.

Communication in healthcare that flows verbally from patient to doctor is the subjective information which a patient provides in order to enable the doctor to perform an adequate health evaluation, make a diagnosis and/or provide appropriate treatment. Subjective information differs from objective information in that it is what the patient feels or perceives with the senses, as opposed to what can be observed or measured. Subjective information consists of symptoms and their relationship to time and factors that bring them on, make them worse, or make them better. Subjective information also includes a description of the symptomatology in relationship to time in terms of onset, duration and changes in severity or relationship to other measurable variables such as physical activity, weight gain or weather conditions.

Objective information is that which is observed and/or measured by a physician. It is obtained by means of a physical examination or diagnostic testing. Although it is not verbal communication in healthcare from patient to doctor, it is a form of communication in that it is what the patient’s body tells the doctor. This nonverbal patient to doctor communication, in turn has a considerable impact on subsequent doctor to patient communication.

An indirect form of communication in healthcare is that between a doctor and a patient proxy because of the inability of the patient to effectively participate in the communication process. Insufficient health literacy is a common cause of the need for proxy communication in healthcare. Other reasons include cognitive deficits related to conditions such as dementia or mental illness, deafness, blindness and muteness.

Patient education is becoming an increasingly important component of communication in healthcare because of the changing healthcare climate which emphasizes patient engagement or getting patients more involved in their healthcare. The patient-education-information exchange can be between doctor and patient or between doctor’s staff and patient. It can be verbal, written, or a combination of the two. With the increasing doctor shortage and the diminishing amount of time doctors can spend with patients, online information provided by a healthcare professional is an effective alternative form of communication which can achieve positive results of increasing health literacy and promoting quality improvement in healthcare.

Who is Willie Lynch?

I have given my students an assignment about who Willie Lynch is and what he had done to the society to gain popularity. And I thought to make a research myself.

William (Willie) Lynch, a British slave owner in the West Indies, and came to United States to advise American slave owners how to keep their slaves restrained, according to the essay in Brother Man: The Odyssey of Black Men in America- an Anthology. Lynching or Lynch Law is actually attributed to him. Lynching initially referred to the hanging of the black man. The William Lynch Speech or letter is from an unknown origin which attracted widespread attention when it was scattered on the internet by 1990s. It was said to be addressed to an audience on the bank of the James River in Virginia in 1712 regarding the control of slaves in the colony. William Lynch was the speaker was summoned to Virginia in 1712, due to a few slave revolts in the area prior to his visit, and his dubious reputation of being an authoritative and strict slave owner. Believers in the substantiality of the William Lynch Speech called it mental slavery.

Hatred among the slaves was a deep division in cognizance to skin color of the slaves; this was the cause of the Lynch’s alleged method. Light-skinned blacks were priced better according to the conditions of slavery given to this doctrine. They were being allowed to do jobs that need power over the other slaves, and were usually assigned in the home of the slave master. While the dark-skinned slaves are bounded to the fields, performing back-breaking labors, and unlike the light-skinned, they cannot enjoy the luxury that the lighter-skinned slaves get. The executions of Lynch’s divide and conquer method of control caused discontent among the slaves. The division between the house and the field slaves is historically erroneous, since slaves that are employed in plantation households were a subset of non-predial slaves, including craftsman such as the carpenters and masons, and were they are under a white supervision than those in the field.

Haitian Revolution led by a non-predial slave, Toussaint L’Ouverture, was on of the most successful slave revolts in history. Louis Farrakhan quotes Willie Lynch’s alleged scheme posed as an impediment to the unity among the African Americans. The Willie Lynch Doctrine, a document that was distributed to the plantations owners and Politicians in the United States advocates them how to convert a man into a slave. This served as a foundation for the current self-destructive life lived by young men today. Causing your own fate and showing your children to do the same. False realities that you grab hold to and base your whole life is a never ending cycle. The doctrine used principles like brainwashing and mind control. The slave owners were actually instructed to use public persecution and indignity to create fear in the black society and demolish the male image in the mind of the black woman.

They were subjected to such persecution like being dragged by the horse with their legs tied, and then light him on fire, and being pulled into parts by a horse in front of his woman. Like today, the black community is still dragged in the same way that the Lynch’s doctrine used to be, it shows how racism still exists. That’s why black woman raises her sons to be physically strong and their daughters’ mentally prepared. So as the time come they could defend themselves as the revolts had shown. For example, there are tendencies of authorities to treat minority suspects’ summarily, bias in both conviction and sentencing. This also shows in the media’s demonization of young black men and the conception of black criminality as it is discernable in cases of racial profiling are all faint messages that is very hard to see today. Like the African-American history, this will have not only an unjust but an everlasting detrimental consequence to the society.

A truly difficult time for everyone and it saddens me to think of what happened during their time.

Death Metal Guitar Lessons

Death metal, as a genre of music evolved in the 80’s from thrash metal and quickly gained popularity. This genre of music is characterized by deep, dark vocals and predominant guitar work. The guitar parts are not plain lead tunes like in rock or jazz. Instead these are a combination of powerful notes enhanced further by technical manipulations through distortion and other fingering techniques. For people who get a high out of death metal guitar, there are many death metal guitar lessons available online that would enable step by step learning of the various skills that enable one to play death metal.

The lessons could mostly be divided into two categories. The first set of lessons is primarily aimed at improving the skills of the guitarist. There are a lot of things one can do with the guitar and the playing hand. To start off, there are hammer-ons and pull-offs which involve quick but deft touches of the finger on the strings, producing sudden tones that embellish the main sound.

Palm muting is another technique, where the strings are muted by the palms, resulting in a choked sound in between actual chords, giving the sound a nice variety and breaking away from the monotony of the chords.

Picking the strings, in other words, stroking the strings with the plectrum is also very important. Some lessons would purely focus on tremolo picking and up and down strumming. Playing lot of notes in small time signatures or intervals of time is a characteristic feature of death metal. To be able to play many notes, one must develop the ability to pick the guitar both in the upward and downward movement of the plectrum, doubling the number of notes played at the same time.

The second set of metal guitar lessons is aimed at understanding not only the instrument but also its primary aide, an accessory called distortion box. For a heavy style of metal playing, the guitar is turned down a note to suit the powerful and low pitched vocals. The distortion box helps in sustaining a note for a long time and also introduces overtones comprised of varying sounds.

Death metal is part skill and part technology, leading to a great genre of music that could get the adrenaline pumping. With proper lessons and practice, you will be playing and banging your head along to death metal tunes with your guitar in no time.

Assistive Technology For People With Disabilities

The only thing “disabling” about living with a disability is the inconvenience presented by things designed to suit the needs of most people. If you are in a wheelchair, a long flight of stairs presents a challenge. By removing barriers to access-for example by building wheelchair ramps-it’s possible to minimize the inconvenience for people with disabilities. While ramps are no new invention, there are numerous technologies that can be used to aid the disabled.

Assistive technologies are applications of modern technology to make it easier for people with disabilities to live their lives independently and with confidence. The first law specifically advocating the development of assistive technology is the Technology-Related Assistance for Individuals with Disabilities Act of 1988. Since then numerous laws have been passed to expand the use of assistive technologies and support their development.

Many of the earliest applications of assistive technology were for people with hearing difficulty. For decades now, telecommunications companies have been required to provide systems that convert between text and speech for the hard of hearing, including teletext and closed captioning. These systems were implemented before the development of effective computer-based text-to-speech, so they were carried out by people trained to listen and type in real time.

Assistive technologies for computer use have boomed in recent years as access to computers and the internet have become a crucial component of modern life. With the help of screen readers and similar technology, people with visual impairments can use the internet almost as easily as a person without visual impairments. This has enabled the visually impaired to have access to the wealth of information available online.

Aside from technologies for the hearing- and visually-impaired, people with other kinds of disabilities also benefit from technology. Mobility technology and durable medical equipment allow people with conditions like cerebral palsy to get around independently-something that would have been nearly impossible not long ago. Mobility technologies have also helped many elderly people live much fuller lives than they would otherwise.

If you live with a disability, you can seek financial assistance from the Social Security Administration to help you pay for assistive technology. The process of receiving social security benefits can be a difficult one, however. Only a lawyer can help you successfully get the technology you need.

The experienced Indiana disability lawyers of the Hankey Law Office are here to help you. To discuss your case directly with an Indianapolis disability attorney, call the Hankey Law Office today.

7 Steps to Better Business English: Choosing a Business English Training Program

His back still a little stiff from the one hour plus flight, Kelly Grant emerged into the maw that is Barcelona’s airport. His Dutch was good, his French fair, his Spanish more than passable, and his American English still rang with a twinge of his fluent German. But this was after all, Spain, bastion of Castellano. He was ready. So what was the language of communication through customs, immigration and for all his day-long business sessions during the month-long series of company negotiations? English. In virtually every country’s business climate, international communications are conducted in English. If your company’s key executives and administrative personnel are not comfortable with and fairly fluent in English, you’ll need to select a business English executive training program. Here are major areas any reputable, certified program will address:

1. Writing correct E-mails and business letters in English

With more than 115 standard business letter forms and formats choosing the correct one for a particular application can be confusing. You should learn the most commonly used forms for your business and get extensive guided practice in their use. From business cards to invoices, basic contracts, agreements and e-mails, understanding key elements of business communications in English is an important area. You’ll need to review the use of formal and informal expressions; grammar and usage for proper business communications by e-mail or more formal correspondence requires facility in these areas:

2. Improvement of speaking fluency

Social conversation and telephone etiquette are paramount to effective business communications. Do you need to talk with clients, customers or personnel from company branch offices abroad in English? Correct and fluent speech and use of idioms and expressions will aid in maintaining good relations with clients and customers outside of your country and in other cultures. It will also aid those who work in company foreign branch offices to better understand each other’s speech. Speaking with more fluency will also give a boost to your executives’ confidence.

3. Correction of pronunciation problems

All too common errors in saying complex numbers, using prepositions and grammar points such as proper use of regular and irregular verbs can be corrected to greatly improve your pronunciation. Can you say, “333,333, 333. 333” correctly, with the right intonation, accent and stress so that others can easily understand you? What’s the difference between pronouncing “contracted”, “needed” and “transferred” or “proved”. Sessions practicing phonetics and correction of individual pronunciation problems using personalized instruction will allow rapid improvement if effectively administered.

4. Elimination of most outstanding and most common errors

Whether you have problems in grammar use of expressions, prepositions or verbs, you can work individually on your biggest problem areas one-by-one to minimize or eliminate them. Do native English speakers talk “too fast”? Do you have to ask others “to repeat that” frequently? Do you struggle for the “right words” when having a conversation? Do you   stammer , stutter or hesitate frequently during conversations? Do you lack confidence in spoken or written communications in English? In speaking, in writing or with poor listening comprehension, guided practice and judicious use of simulations will soon give you noticeable improvement, more confidence and better communicative business English.

5. Improve your vocabulary quickly and easily

Vocabulary or lexis consists of words, phrases and expressions – the very building blocks of language. The more lexis you know the better and more precisely you’ll be able to communicate proposals, ideas or plans to customers and clients. There are a number of easy, simple ways you can increase your vocabulary quickly and effectively for maximum improvement in the shortest possible time. Areas that will substantially aid in building your functional vocabulary as quickly as possible include:

o Knowledge of affixes (prefixes and suffixes)

o Identification and use the 12 verb tenses of English

o Knowing how to change the parts of speech of a word

o Understanding words with multiple meanings

o Using true and false cognate vocabulary correctly

6. Give concise business presentations that promote your company

If you need to talk to clients and customers about company products or services, make introductions, describe company policy or procedures, then it’s essential that your business English language program provide you with guided, individualized practice in these areas. Learn to make effective comparisons, ask questions and gather information of all types from customers and clients to improve marketing, sales and customer relations. In a good program you will learn to easily and confidently:

o Introduce yourself and your company

o Describe your company’s products or services

o Ask for and gather key information from prospective clients

o Discuss costs, prices, delivery times and dates

o Ask and Answer basic question about your company, its products and services

7. Learn and practice with experienced, certified, professional native speakers

A business English language program is only as good as the professionals behind it. Experienced, skilled native speakers are indispensable. They should be certified in helping English language learners develop the most from their practice activities in speaking with confidence, developing listening comprehension skills, writing business correspondence and comprehension of business English documents of all types. A generous variety of practice activities and exercise types should be made available to suit the needs, interests and abilities of your executives and staff.

A business English executive training program that addresses these major areas will allow your executives, administrative or other key personnel to quickly develop fluency and confidence in their English language skills. Careful review of proposed program aspects will help to ensure that the expectations of your company and personnel will be met to their satisfaction. Better business English communications can be a real boon to growing your client base, expanding potential customer contacts and engaging in effective international business communications.

Common Speech Disorders in Children

As children begin to speak and learn language, there may be a variety of disorders or conditions which could hinder them along the way. It’s important to become familiar with some of the most common, so that you know what you may expect, or what type of action should be taken. Here’s a guide to some of the most common speech disorders in children.

  • Childhood Apraxia of Speech: This is motor speech disorder in which the brain has difficulty planning and sequencing movement of the articulators, and can result in difficulty producing sounds, syllables and words. The child may be able to internally process what he or she wanted to say, but may struggle to physically coordinate the movements to produce speech.
  • Stuttering: Stuttering is quite common, but can range greatly in terms of severity. An evaluation of an individual’s stuttering pattern would take into account family history, concomitant speech or language disorders, the presence of avoidance behaviors or secondary behaviors (e.g., grimacing, blinking), evaluation of the nature of the speaker’s disfluencies, and the speaker’s own views of his or her stuttering and how it affects his or her life.
  • Receptive-Expressive Language Impairment: An expressive language disorder relates to problems with a child getting his or her message across to others, while a receptive disorder relates to issues understanding an incoming message. Jointly a mixed receptive-expressive language disorder would have symptoms of both conditions.
  • Language-Based Learning Disabilities: This refers to a potentially wide range of different conditions, which hinder a child’s ability with age-appropriate reading, spelling and writing. Due to the relationship between spoken and written language, children with language-based learning disabilities may present with challenges with spoken language as well.
  • Phonological Disorder: A phonological disorder is a condition which affects a person’s ability to discriminate among and produce patterns of sounds. That means entire types of sounds may be omitted, or replaced with other entire types of sounds, i.e., replacing hard /k/ sounds with /t/ sounds, even though the child may be able to physically produce the /k/ and /t/ sounds in isolation.
  • Articulation Disorder: An articulation disorder is a type of speech-sound disorder, which relates to problems producing speech sounds. As such, certain sounds may be incorrectly substituted or omitted, or even added, to words.

By no means is this a comprehensive collection of speech disorders in children, but it does include a number of common conditions. Hopefully you’ve been able to gain new insight into terminology you may have previously heard of, but were unaware about what the real implications were.

If your child has been diagnosed with a speech disorder, or you believe he or she may have one, it’s important to receive an evaluation from a certified pediatric speech pathologist.

A Portable Facial Steamer is a Versatile Device

A portable facial steamer is a device that has been created to perform a cleansing job of the skin. It works by opening the pores of the skin allowing any impurities to be flushed away. Used in conjunction with an exfoliating brush it can leave the skin feeling revitalized and refreshed.

However these facial steamers have other uses that may not have been planned for when they were bought. The creation and use of steam has had healing properties as well as being a means to create a relaxed atmosphere in the immediate vicinity.

In years gone by whenever people came down with a cold they would boil the kettle and pour the boiling water into a bowl before sitting over it with a tea towel over their heads, breathing in the steam that was produced. The idea is that the steam helps to clear the sinuses. In the same way, only in a much more intensive way, a home steamer can be used for the same purpose. The steamer can be used as an inhaler and the profusion of steam can be used as an effective method for breaking up congestion.

The other alternative use for the facial steamer is as an aromatherapy instrument. When putting the water into the reservoir you can also choose to place a few drops of tea tree oil or lavender oil to create the soothing or calming aromas that will permeate the air in the room.

Although a steamer is primarily an effective device for performing a regular beauty treatment, its versatility makes it a device that not only improves the body but also strengthens the spirit.

Impact of Your Health on Your Wealth

We have all felt the pinch of rising cost of health care. Our costs are on a path to $4.8 trillion by 2021; up from $2.76 trillion in 2010 and $75 billion in 1970. Health care is fast approaching 20% of the U.S. economy.

What does that mean to you personally?

Accelerating health care costs leave families with considerably less cash to spend. But what are our options? What can we do differently?

PricewaterhouseCoopers calculates that up to half of all health-care spending results from waste. That waste can be divided into 2 areas.

One area of waste is excessive, defensive medicine that orders redundant, inappropriate or unnecessary tests. What can you do to prevent this? Ask questions, challenge the “why,” get second opinions and look for less expensive options for the same procedure.

We can also control the other major area of waste-our own health behaviors. We can take medication as prescribed. We can stop smoking and drink alcohol moderately or not at all. We can eat healthy whole foods and stay physically active, to maintain a healthy weight. We can very significantly reduce our chances of suffering from chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart/lung problems.

The growing burden of chronic diseases adds significantly to escalating health care costs. Researchers predict a 42% increase in chronic disease cases by 2023; this adds $4.2 trillion in treatment costs. Much of this cost is preventable, since many chronic conditions are linked to unhealthy lifestyles.

We need to become more responsible consumers of health care if for no other reason than poor health is a huge opportunity cost. Poor health makes us miss work, possibly miss promotions. Poor health costs us money that we could spend elsewhere and makes it harder to save.

Olivia Mitchell in Money Magazine states that if a couple in their 50s and 60s with an average income develop chronic health problems, it will slow their savings by half the rate of their healthy counterparts. She adds that a healthy 65-year-old couple would need $295,000 to cover insurance premiums and out-of-pocket medical expenses over an average life span (or about 20 years). Add an additional $150,000 for a couple with chronic illnesses.

One more way to reduce health care waste is to take advantage of high deductible health insurance policies offered by employers. These encourage conservative use of health care. When paired with Health Savings accounts, they can increase savings for medical expenses.

But perhaps the biggest shift needs to be in our attitude as a society.

Allison Ferguson sums it up well: “Too many people sacrifice their health to earn their wealth. Then, turn around and spend their wealth getting back their health.”

Emergency Dental Treatment

Emergency dental  treatment  is something that everyone requires at one time or another. Did you know that some health and dental plans do not cover emergency dentist  treatments  or care? Emergency  treatment  is generally only available for the immediate relief of pain. Emergency dental  treatment  is a very important matter and waiting for the next day to see a regular dentist can make it harder to fix your dental problems.

Pain is one of the reasons people go to the dentist. A painful tooth can be triggered by hot or cold food and drinks. Pain involving these parts of the mouth, even when minor, can indicate a severe underlying problem that could worsen with time. It is important to contact a dentist as soon as possible for a professional evaluation to minimize damage to the teeth, gums, and supporting bone.

Attending an emergency dentist at the first sight of pain ensures your teeth can be protected and further damage limited. Some  treatments  can ensure your mouth is thoroughly protected while any procedures are taking place through the use of a dental dam. After any dental procedures are completed you might feel some degree of sensitivity to cold as well as hot foods and drinks where in the past you did not have this sensation.

Dental pain relief can also come in several methods and one of the most common is through using a nitrous oxide gas or intra venous sedation. Teeth can be filled with gold; porcelain; silver amalgam (which consists of mercury mixed with silver, tin, zinc, and copper); or tooth-colored, plastic and glass materials called composite resin fillings. The location and extent of the decay, cost of filling material, patients’ and insurance coverage will of course have an effect on the overall costs of  treatment .

Oral pain can bring anxiety to almost every sufferer. Dental  treatments  that require incision and drilling bring too much worry as well. Oral examinations, x-rays and checkups are done to ensure a proper  treatment  plan is drawn and executed and the dental diagnosis determines what types of  treatments  and how an individual patient case is to be treated.

In terms of Crowns, these strengthen and protect remaining tooth structure and improve the appearance of your teeth. Root canal  treatment  consists of removing the nerve that lies within the root of the tooth. Crowns and veneers are generally permanent solutions, so it is important that you discuss the  treatment  with an emergency dentist before making a decision.

When discussing childrens teeth it is worth remembering that teeth are some of your children’s most important possessions. How you look after their teeth from the time they are babies will make a difference to how they grow and how healthy they are so start as you mean to continue, and hopefully, they will never require the services of an Emergency Dentist.