Lung Cancer and Pneumonia

Frequently lung cancers are picked up on a routine chest X-ray in anyone experiencing no symptoms. If cancer cells begin to grow up in one of the bronchioles near the aveoli, the tumor could turn into the size of a golf ball or even larger without causing symptoms. Even when the chest X-ray seems normal, cancer might be supposed if the one has coughed up blood, develops unrelenting hoarseness, has had repeated episodes of pneumonia in the same place in the lung, or has chest pain or trouble in breathing.

Lung cancer is a most significant disease after the age of fifty. Much more widespread in men than in women, its incidence rate is growing faster than any other type of cancer. The cause remains unidentified but remarkable evidence points to tobacco’s guiltiness, even if automobile exhaust fumes and other gases are powerfully suspected as well. Cancer in the lung frequently starts with a blameless cough which might be dry or productive of blood streaked sputum. The likely, perceptible difficulties are wheezing, hoarseness, pain in the chest, and weight loss, all signifying the potential presence of a serious disease.

Sometimes the initial sign of lung cancer is pneumonia, with fever. There might also be a cough with yellow sputum when the tumor closes a bronchial tube and infection expands behind the blockage. If a tumor extends directly from the lung into the tissues of the chest wall, it might lead to pain.

In view of the fact that lung cancer can typically be seen on the X-ray film, a chest X-ray is one of the first tests you will have. As with most types of X-ray pictures, a chest X-ray brings about no discomfort. But even if a tumor is not seen, the chest X-ray may offer other clues to the diagnosis, such as pneumonia in the lung.

Your doctor might want you to have a chest X-ray even though the diagnosis is already obvious. The intention is to be able to evaluate it with previous and later X-rays, to follow your progress and observe for likely changes in the lung tissue. It is significant for your doctor to realize whether the cancer is developing, or whether it is responding to treatment and shrinking.

Health Benefits of Onion Dishes and Preparation

Onion being a vegetable that has antiseptic, therapeutic and catalytic qualities can be used to aid the cure of many diseases and reduce the cooking period of many dishes respectively. Onion has a low calorific value. As a catalyst it is used to reduce the cooking time of the following dishes: Beans, Rice and beef. In addition, it tenderizes the beef by reducing its toughness.

Onion is also used as a spice in cooking Soup, Stew, Rice Plantain and Green leafy vegetables (e.g. Spinach). When onion is used as a spice in these dishes it improves the taste, flavour, and aroma. It is also used for garnishing many types of dishes e.g. Jollof rice, Beans, and Grilled fish. It constitutes a large portion in Salad making. In spring or green onion, both the bulbs and leaves are edible.

Its antiseptic and therapeutic qualities assist in curing the following diseases: Asthma, Bronchitis, Pnuemonia, Influenza and Cold. Victims of Tuberculosis have been reported to improve considerably as a result of heavy consumption of onion. Onion has helped bring about improvement in cases of Low Blood Pressure, and Obesity. It also aids the destruction of worms and other parasites in the body. Crushed onion poultice applied to the chest has been reported to relieve cases of Pleurisy (inflammation of the lung) and boils on the skin. Onion is very good for diabetics because it contains allyl propyl disulfide, which lowers blood sugar levels by increasing the amount of free insulin available.


1. Cream of Onion Soap:

a. Ingredients:

(1.) 2 medium onions (thinly sliced). (2.) 1 table spoon butter. (3.) 1 cup of water. (4.) ½ teaspoon pepper. (5.) 1 ½ cups of cream sauce.

b. Method:

(1.) Fry onion lightly in butter. (2.) Add pepper, salt and water allow to boil. (3.) Add 1 ½ cups cream sauce. (4.) Heat for 1 ½ minutes.

2. Cream sauce (1 ½ cups only):

a. Ingredients:

(1.) 2 dessert spoons margarine. (2.) 2 dessert spoons flour. (3.) ¼ teaspoon salt. (4.) 1 ½ cups of milk.

b. Method:

(1.) Melt butter in sauce-pan, using low heat. (2.) Add flour and salt, blend well. (3.) Add milk, stirring constantly with wooden spoon. (4.) Cook for 2 minutes.

3. Scrambled eggs with green onion:

a. Ingredients:

(1.) 3 green onion stalks. (2.) 1 dessert spoon margarine. (3.) 1 teaspoon flour. (4.) ¼ cup milk. (5.) 2 eggs. (6) ¼ teaspoon spices. (7.) Salt to taste.

b. Method:

(1.) Cut onion stalk in small pieces. (2.) Fry well in melted margarine. (3.) Sprinkle flour and cook until change in colour. (4.) Add eggs mixed with milk; salt and spices. (5.) Cook for ten seconds and serve.

4. Stuffed onion:

a. Ingredients:

(1.) 2 large onions. (2.) 2 teaspoons cold minced meat or sausage meat. (3.) I dessert spoon bread crumbs. (4.) ½ mixed salt and pepper.

b. Method:

(1.) Parboil the onions in boiling water. (2.) Drain and remove centre of onions. (3.) Melt butter, add meat crumbs seasoning and chopped centre of onions. (4.) Use the mix to fill the centre of onions. (5.) Wrap the onion in foil or brown paper and bake in moderate oven temperature until tender. (6.) Remove paper and serve hot.

5. Vegetable salad:

a. Ingredients:

(1.) Few carrots. (2.) 2 tablespoon of beans. (3.) Small bunch of lettuce. (4.) 1 medium sized onion. (5.) 2 tablespoons salad cream. (6) 2 medium sized onions. (7.) Sugar to taste. (8.) 1 egg.

b. Method:

(1.) Wash and drain all the vegetables. (2.) Cut them into required sizes. (3.) Prep the salad cream. (4.) Arrange them into layers and add the salad cream alternatively.

6. Boiled beans with onion:

a. Ingredients:

(1.) 1 cup of beans. (2.) ½ medium sized onion (sliced or chopped). (3.) Enough water for boiling. (4.) Salt to taste.

b. Method:

(1.) Bring water to boil in a sauce-pan. (2.) Add the beans and the onion. (3.) Cook for 25 minutes and add salt. (4.) Continue cooking for another 20 minutes or more until beans are soft. (5.) Serve with fish or shrimp sauce.

7. Meat with onion:

a. Ingredients:

(1.) 12 medium pieces of tough beef. (2.) ½ medium sized onion. (3.) Enough water for boiling. (4.) Salt to taste.

b. Method:

(1.) Cut, wash and put beef in the sauce-pan. (2.) Add sliced onion, salt and other seasonings. (3.) Cook until beef is soft. (4.) Use as desired in soup or stew.

Cough Remedies – 9 Useful Home Remedies for Cough

Cough is an important reflex action, which the body undertakes to get rid of substances that are irritating the air passages. A cough is usually initiated to clear a buildup of phlegm in the trachea, by forceful expulsion of air at high speed away from the body. You can choose to cough (a voluntary process), or our body may cough on its own (an involuntary process).

Cough can be of 2 types – acute and chronic. An acute cough is one that begins suddenly and is present for less than 3 weeks. They can be infectious (common cold, sinus, pneumonia), or non-infectious (asthma, bronchitis). Chronic coughs are present for more than 3 weeks. .

Some common causes of cough –

The cause of a cough is usually based on where it is originating from. However, the most common triggers of a cough include –

1) Allergies or asthma, chronic bronchitis

2) Common upper respiratory tract infections, resulting from the secretions of the nose and sinuses draining into the throat, such as in cases of sinus infections, chronic postnasal drip, diseases of the external ear, infections of the throat

3) Exposure to environmental pollutants such as cigarette smoke, dust, pollen, pet dander, industrial chemicals.

4) Smoking as well as exposure to second hand smoke.

5) Side-effects of certain medications

6) Chronic fluid build-up in the lungs.

7) Blockage of the airway due to an inhaled object such as food.

8) Gastroesophageal reflux is also a very common cause of cough. This occurs when acid from the stomach travels up the esophagus, resulting in the reflex production of a cough. This is often associated with a sensation of heartburn; and worsens during the day or when one lies flat on the back.

Symptoms of cough –

The symptoms of a chronic cough can be hard to assess, because many causes of chronic cough have overlapping signs and symptoms. Infact, a cough is an annoying symptom that can have many causes.

However, some common cough symptoms include –

1) Shortness of breath, as well as coughing up pink, frothy mucus – maybe the cause is fluid retention in lungs

2) Cough produces clear pale yellow mucus – due to viral infection, such as cold

3) Cough produces yellow or greenish mucus – cause may be chronic bronchitis or pneumonia.

4) If cough is associated with wheezing and shortness of breath – reason could be asthma.

5) Fever, chills and night sweats along with chest pain when you cough – the cause may be tuberculosis

6) If lung cancer or a cancer of the air passages is present, one may cough up blood. Other symptoms that may point towards a cancer include increasing fatigue, loss of appetite, unexplained loss of weight, or decreased ability to swallow solid or liquid foods.

Treatment –

Coughs can be treated with cough medications. Dry coughs are treated with cough suppressants that reduce the urge to cough, while productive coughs (coughs that produce phlegm) are treated with expectorants that loosen mucus from the respiratory tract.

Antihistamines and decongestants are a good choice for treating coughs associated with post nasal drip.

If some underlying disease is causing the cough, treatment should first be based on treating the underlying disease.

A recent study indicates that, because of the presence of theobromine in chocolate, a bar of dark chocolate may be an effective treatment for a persistent cough.

Gargling with salt and warm water is also very helpful by cutting phlegm and reducing inflammation. Dissolve 1/2 teaspoon table salt in 1/2 cup warm water, and gargle every three to four hours.

Some Useful Home Remedies for Cough

Symptoms of cough usually subside on their own with 7-10 days. However, lot of simple home remedies are there which provide relief from the discomfort associated with it.

1) Take three peppercorns, and add a pinch of black cumin seeds and rock salt and consume it.

2) Drink hot milk with honey at bedtime for cough relief.

3) Make a decoction by boiling 50 grams fresh ginger with 5 tablespoon sugar in 2 glasses water for 30 minutes. Drink it hot, twice a day, in one day as this is very effective Home Remedy for Cough.

4) Mix powdered cinnamon, lemon juice and honey. Take two teaspoon twice daily.

5) In one cup of warm milk, add a pinch of turmeric powder (Haldi) and drink twice a day.

6) Mix half a teaspoon of tulsi juice with half a teaspoon of ginger juice. Add 1 teaspoon of honey. Take the above mixture 2-3 times a day. This is also useful Home Remedy for Cough

7) Prepare a mixture by adding 1/2 teaspoon honey with 1/2 teaspoon lemon juice and take it every 12 hours. Honey relieves the itchiness by moistening the throat passage.

8) Mix 8 – 10 tablespoon of coconut milk with 1 tablespoon poppy seed (powdered) and 1 tablespoon of pure honey. Take this every night before going to bed. This remedy is very good Home Remedy for Cough

9) Garlic-onion-chicken soup is an effective remedy for cough. Take it steaming hot, to give relief to irritation in throat.

Cough In Children

Childhood coughing can be due to many factors, often more than one in a given child. Certainly the most common causes are common colds, more serious respiratory infections like pneumonia, and asthma. Aspirated foreign bodies to the airways, sinusitis and psychogenic cough are other causes.

The typical cough from a cold virus is associated with other symptoms of a cold. These usually include runny nose, sneezing, sore throat and low-grade fever. Often there are other family members who are sick. This type of cough tends to resolve as the cold gets better, but commonly lasts a few days to a week or two after the rest of the cold symptoms go away.

More serious bacterial respiratory infections include pneumonia. Although pneumonia can develop quickly and without a preceding cold, often it complicates a cold or influenza. A typical cold that gets much worse after a few days, with higher fever, cough, often production of a lot of sputum or phlegm, and sometimes with shortness of breath or chest pain is suspicious for pneumonia and is best to be evaluated by your physician.

Croup is a specific type of respiratory viral illness. It is caused by the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and other related viruses. It is fairly minor, but can be severe and require respiratory support with oxygen, or rarely mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit. It tends to be more severe in younger children. In infants, especially premature infants, it can present as a wheezing illness called bronchiolitis that can be more serious.

Asthma tends to cause wheezing also, but can present primarily as a cough. It tends to come in children with a family history of asthma or allergies. Treatment is beyond the scope of this article, but is best discussed with your physician.

Aspiration of a foreign body, like a nut, bead or particle of food can lead to a chronic cough, and although uncommon, can be extremely refractory and needs to be considered in longstanding coughs in children.

Psychogenic cough is uncommon but worth considering, especially when the cough is not associated with other symptoms of illness. It is treated with behavior modification including ignoring and can often be cured with suggestion type therapy.

All About Wrist Pain

Today we are in a seated position and we’re going to talk about carpal tunnel as well as wrist pain. The biggest thing I have to say about carpal tunnel and wrist pain is that when you are looking at it from a symptomatic view, it’s all about where the pain is located and where the extensors or flexors are located. Yet with carpal tunnel, most of the time it goes up towards the top of the body and that is the problem. In this area, we are referring to shoulder issues, neck issues, and the T-spine as well. If you’re looking for a solution to the problem for long-term, go upstream to where the shoulder, neck and thoracic spine are located.

Today, however, we will talk about what is happening within the wrist itself and the symptomatic view of wrist pain. Someone asked me about this, so I’m giving this tip to you. For wrist pain, I think the most effective treatment method is doing trigger point work. As you guys know, I dislocated my carpals as a teenager playing basketball, so my wrists broke. That is what got me started on this whole journey for recovery. As a massage therapist, every other week I was out and it was horrible so I perfected this technique for myself. That is the key here. This hits home for me in many ways because I couldn’t do the things that I loved, such as helping people.

What I’m going to show you is some easy breaks you can do to get the pain to subside dramatically. However, remember that this is a symptomatic view, not a systematic view. During the symptomatic view, you’ll get guaranteed short-term gain. Some of the trigger points can refer to different places but we are only going to be looking at it in specific areas. I’m going to give you a visual of the muscle tissue. So when you’re looking at anything that I refer to regarding on trigger point work, it is about the general area. It will never refer to that one point, because you’re never going to find that one point in the plethora of fibers that you have. You want to think about it in terms of muscle groups that are causing pain in that general area.

So if you have a trigger finger, we will be looking at the muscle group that runs along the forearm. Whatever happens at the top is also happening in the flexors, at the bottom, as well. So the top of your forearm can mirror the part underneath your forearm. You will be trigger-pointing both sides of your forearm, for wrist pain. I’m only going to show you a couple of muscles on one side and you’re just going to mirror it to the other side.

Within your extensors, you want to realize that the pain in the elbow refers down to the hand and it’s not always right around where the real problem is. It’s important to remember your pain is always someplace else. There’s always something driving it someplace else.

One area in your extensors is very close to the elbow and you then have to work your way down. Another area is the thinner muscle you feel when you rotate your forearm slightly. This muscle on the outside refers pain exactly in the center. This muscle is always going to be inflamed and irritated. The next area to look at is the outside of the forearm itself. So, from the top view, you’re looking at the forearm at three different areas: you’re going to be focusing on the middle, the inside, and outside. Once you do that, then your body is going to really start moving.

Please be mindful of what’s happening because as you change things at the top, the bottom will also change. In carpal tunnel syndrome, there is a small, inflamed hole that holds all the tendons around your wrist. This inflammation now starts to crush the tendon, which causes the entire wrist to get tighter.

So, if you start loosening all these areas, they are going to work harder and therefore hurt more. Remember, you have to balance what you’re doing at the bottom, by your wrist, with what is happening at the top, by the shoulder, neck, and T-spine. So that’s going to be key here.

I will now show you the techniques you can use to clean it up. The easiest way to clean up the trigger points within your forearm is to use the handball. Many people use other types of balls, but I’m all about listening to your body and staying in that discomfort zone instead of giving it pain. I like using the handball because it allows for communication by pushing back, thus allowing you to feel what areas need to be worked on. Put the handball close to your elbow, let your forearm relax, and place the arm against the wall. You want to make sure your handball is in between the wall and your elbow. Now you are going to push your body against your forearm and let it relax. Once you do that, everything now starts to open up. You’re going to hold it there while you feel your trigger point, and then relax your forearm. Move your forearm backwards a little as you continue to do this. Then you are going to rotate your forearm upwards, and follow the same procedure. Afterwards, you want to rotate your forearm downwards, and apply the same technique. You will feel some sort of discomfort, but it should not be painful. You can still talk and make a note of the points that are irritated. Now you are going to cross your forearms behind your back and place the handball right on the forearm. You can lean against the wall and apply a similar pressure. This is the easiest way to clean up those trigger points on the forearm.

Arthritis Knee Surgery – The Pros and Cons

Arthritis is a disease characterized by abnormal inflammations affecting the human body’s articulations or joints. The fingers, elbows, hips, and knees are the primary targets of arthritis. Arthritis comes in varied forms. Osteoarthritis, the most common type of arthritis, is caused predominantly by old age, but may also develop in response to certain lesions, infections, or malformations, of the knee. Other less common but equally debilitating forms of arthritis are as follows: gouty arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis.

Treatment Options for Arthritis In the Knee

Several modes of treatment are available for managing arthritis and its symptoms. These may range from physical therapy, pharmacological remedies (medications), to arthritis-specific surgical procedures.

The latter, more commonly known collectively as arthritis knee surgery, has a variety of more specialized types – for example, knee osteotomy, arthroscopy, and knee replacement surgery. The specific form of arthritis knee surgery will depend on a number of factors, such as the extent and severity of the disease.

What is Knee Arthritis Surgery?

Depending on the state of arthritis, the most recommended option for treatment is frequently arthritis knee surgery.

Arthritis usually develops in stages, gradually destroying the cartilaginous tissue present in the tissue joints. In its early stages, anti-inflammatory treatment and physical therapy are the primary modes of treatment. However, as the disease progresses, arthritis knee surgery becomes an urgent and crucial necessity.

Arthroscopy: A Less Invasive Option

Arthroscopy is a less invasive surgical option in arthritis treatment. This procedure involves the repair of ligament and cartilage tissue injuries in the knee and the other joints. During an arthroscopy, a tiny instrument resembling an endoscope will be inserted in the affected articulation via a little incision.

Although the effectiveness of this procedure remains an issue of debate, many proponents attest to the benefits of arthroscopy when applied in appropriate scenarios.

Telltale signs that a patient requires knee arthroscopy are as follows: painful popping of the knee, knee joint instability or wobbling knees, a prickling sensation when using the knee joint, and inflammation or swelling of the affected body part(s).

Knee Osteotomy: Better Option for Younger Patients

In cases of younger patients, these arthritics only often have damage in only one part of the knee joint. Consequently, they are not advised to undergo complete knee replacement surgery.

Sometimes, arthritis also manifests through knock-legged or bow-legged cases, which are characterized by a joint reorientation, such that the joint’s weight center is transferred from its damaged area to its healthy area. In such cases, knee osteotomy is often the best course of action.

Partial Knee Replacement Surgery: The Hybrid

Considered a “hybrid” of both osteotomy and complete knee replacement surgery, partial knee replacement surgery is significantly less invasive than the latter. This procedure is done by replacing the damaged portion of the affected articulation with a prosthetic one, while the healthy parts are left intact to heal. Partial knee replacement surgery is recommended for severe arthritis confined to certain parts of articulation. Compared to complete knee replacement surgery, this procedure requires smaller incisions and allows for a more rapid recovery time.

Complete Knee Replacement Surgery: A Practical Option

For several arthritis cases, the most practical option is complete knee replacement surgery. This procedure entails the complete removal and replacement of the damaged joint tissue with plastic or metal prosthetic implants.

Associated Risks: Arthritis Knee Surgery

As in most forms of major surgery, arthritis knee surgery patients are susceptible to thrombosis, infections, nerve damage, and certain anesthesia risks.

In addition, arthritis knee surgery involves a number of post-surgery risks, including instability of the affected joint, kneecap fracture or   dislocation , and even decreased mobility or reduced range of motion.

Arthritis Knee Surgery: Pros and Cons

In spite of the risks associated to the procedure, arthritis knee surgery comes with several advantages that can benefit the inflicted patient. The primary benefits are, of course, considerable pain alleviation, enhanced mobility, as well as a substantial improvement in one’s quality of life. Most importantly, within 6 months subsequent to the surgery, the previously affected joint has the potential to regain its full functionality.

Conversely, arthritis knee surgery also comes with some perceptible disadvantages. For example, post-operative patients may experience discomfort and soreness in the period following the procedure. Additionally, the use of the prosthetic joint can be noisy and draw attention to its presence. In some cases, difficulties in movement may arise. And, depending on the type of prosthetics used, the replacement knee may have limited usability, such as only 10-15 years before a new replacement knee becomes necessary once more.

All things considered, however, if we weigh the pain and discomfort that are observed in some cases against the immense potential for successful post-surgery results, it is easy to conclude that the pros of arthritis knee surgery unquestionably exceed its cons.

Football Related Knee Injuries

Ligament Injuries

Football players frequently injure one or more of the knee ligaments. These ligaments include the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), the medial collateral ligament (MCL), and the lateral collateral ligament (LCL).

ACL Injury – When an athlete changes direction rapidly, lands wrong from a jump, or simply slows down when running, the ACL could tear. With this injury, knee swelling immediately occurs and walking is painful. The knee may have loss of range of motion and tenderness with an ACL injury. Treatment for this type of injury depends on the degree of tear to the ligament, whether or not there are other associated injuries, and how much physical demand the patient puts on their knee. Sometimes, the orthopedic specialist needs to operate to repair a complete tear of the ACL. Recovery is measured in months, rather than weeks for this type of injury.

MCL Injury – The MCL is generally injured from a direct blow to the outside portion of the knee. The ligament is torn or stretched when the foot is planted firmly on the ground and a sideways force hits the knee. An injured MCL causes pain, difficulty walking, and tenderness. Therapy involves the use of a knee immobilizer, rest, ice applications, compression with a support bandage, and frequent knee elevation. Surgery is only necessary for severe tears of the MCL.

PCL Injury – The PCL is injured when a football player receives a blow to the front aspect of the knee or makes a simple misstep on the turf. Most PCL tears and injuries will heal with conservative treatment. An injured PCL leads to pain with walking, instability, and swelling of the knee. Surgery may be necessary with complete tearing and extensive damage to the PCL.

LCL Injury – The LCL is the least likely ligament to be injured during football activities. When severe force is applied to the inside of the knee, a LCL injury could occur. Symptoms include pain, swelling, weakness, tenderness, and discomfort to the outside of the knee. Treatment involves the RICE method, anti-inflammatory medications, and immobilization. Surgery to reattach the ligament to the bone is sometimes required.

Cartilage Injuries

Torn Cartilage – Most of the time, the meniscus is the cartilage that is torn during a football game. This rubbery, tough structure serves as a shock absorber during athletic activities. The meniscus tears with cutting, decelerating, pivoting, twisting, or from being tackled. Most torn meniscus injuries cause gradual pain and swelling, worse with climbing steps or uphill. Not all meniscus tears require surgery, but frequently the damage can only be repaired through an operation.


The patella can break if the football player falls directly onto it or receives a direct blow in that area. If the bone is fragmented, surgery will be required for repair. If the bone is in appropriate position, the orthopedic specialist may prescribe an immobilizer and rest for the injury. The head of the fibula on the outside area of the knee joint is easily fractured from direct blows or as part of an injury to the lower leg. If the bone is not out of alignment, immobilization and conventional therapy will treat the injury. Sometimes, however, the fibula fracture is complex and requires surgical repair. With jumping types of injuries, the tibia bone can be damaged. If the fracture occurs in the tibial plateau, surgery is often necessary.

Bursa Inflammation

Bursa inflammation is also called ‘housemaid’s knee’ or prepatellar bursitis and is the result of repetitive kneeling or crawling on the knees. The space between the kneecap and skin is called the bursa and it becomes irritated and fills with fluid. Bursa inflammation is a common type of knee injury of football players. Treatment includes using anti-inflammatory medications and rest. Occasionally the bursa needs to be drained for resolution of the problem.

Patellar Injuries

The patella can dislocate if it receives a direct blow. The blow can force this bone toward the outside area of the knee. Most dislocations of the patella easily return to normal alignment by simply straightening out the knee. However, some patella dislocations are serious and require surgery. Also, patella-femoral syndrome is inflammation to the underside of the patella. This condition causes localized pain, which is worse with running and walking down stairs. Treatment involves strengthening exercises, the use of ice therapy, and anti-inflammatory medications. Severe cases of this disorder require arthroscopic surgery to remove the damaged cartilage and realign parts of the quadriceps muscle.

Muscle and Tendon Strain

Most strains of the knee are treated with rest, ice therapy, elevation, and compression. Crutches help with walking, and the doctor may order an anti-inflammatory medication. These injuries are often the result of hyper-extension involving the hamstring muscles or hyperflexion causing the quadriceps to be injured. If the patellar or quadriceps tendon is ruptured, there is inability to extend the knee. Surgery is necessary to repair this type of injury.

A Jump Rope Workout to Lose That Last Bit of Stubborn Body Fat

Most People Have Never Attempted a Jump Rope Workout.

When was the last time you jumped rope? For most people the answer would be back in Elementary School or possibly Junior High. It’s actually too bad, because it is a very efficient form of exercise. Most people could easily walk for 15 minutes, but I would bet less than 1 percent of adults could jump rope for 15 minutes straight. Very few people, besides boxers, have ever seriously used the jump rope to achieve top condition.

What Muscle Groups are Worked While Jumping Rope?

Jumping rope will seriously work every muscle in the body. I’m convinced that it will expose your weak links. After your first jump rope workout, you will be sore in many different parts of your body. Honestly, I think my entire body was sore after my first jump rope workout. I was especially sore in my calf muscles as well as my abs. As a side note I will say that jumping rope will help you in your quest to get super-ripped abs. Your core really gets worked hard since you have to use your abs to stabilize your entire body to help you propel your body through the air.

How Jumping Rope Helps Your Body Release Fat Burning Hormones.

HGH is a natural hormone that your body releases to burn body fat. You have probably seen many ads for pills that will help increase your natural levels of HGH. This was really popular about 5 years ago, but you don’t hear too much about HGH anymore. A high level of HGH in your body is the quickest route to burning body fat! Unfortunately, low intensity cardio won’t help your body release HGH. The best way to increase HGH is performing high intensity cardio for 30-60 seconds or so, followed by a minute or two of walking or low intensity cardio. This is called High Intensity Interval Training.

What Type of Jump Rope To Purchase?

I recommend getting a “speed rope”…these run around $15 at most sporting good stores. They are plastic ropes without the beads. You also don’t want to buy the weighted ropes. Get a jump rope that is adjustable. You are going to want to adjust the rope to an optimum level to jump quickly without hitting your head. If it is too long, you won’t be able to jump at a fast rate.

How To Adjust Your Jump Rope to the Correct Height:

  • Set your jump rope on the ground
  • Stand on the midpoint of the rope (an equal distance between the handles)
  • Grab the handles and pull them up to your chest while standing on the rope
  • If the top of the handles reach above your collar bone the rope is too long
  • If the top of the handles reach your upper abs or lower, the rope is too short
  • I like to adjust the rope so the handles hit about 6 inches below my collar bone
  • If in doubt, go a bit too long and shorten the rope a bit as you get more experienced

Your First Two Weeks of the Program, Learn the Skill of Jumping Rope

Most beginners “double bounce” in between rotations. This actually allows them to rest their core a bit as well as their calf muscles in between rotations and means that they have a low level of core fitness. You will want to jump cleanly in between each rotation and keep the abs and core tight.

Your arms should barely move when you jump rope. The rotation of the rope should come from wrist movement. If you want to increase the speed of the rotations, simply increase the tightness of the circles that your wrist is making (this will make more sense when you start jumping rope). The goal of your first two weeks of jumping rope is to eventually work up to a point where you can jump rope for 5 minutes solid without having to stop and start again. This means that if you have to stop because the rope hits your feet, you have to start again from zero. You also want to be able to jump rope alternating feet, so it looks like you are running while jumping rope.

A Great 15 Minute Jump Rope Workout that You Can Customize to Your Liking

  • Stand in front of a clock or timer of some sort
  • Jump Rope for 3 minutes to warm up
  • Rest for 30 seconds
  • Jump rope as quickly as possible for 60 seconds
  • Rest for 30 seconds
  • Jump Rope as quickly as possible for 60 seconds
  • Rest for 30 seconds
  • Repeat this alternating pattern for 15-20 minutes

Note: For the 60 second sprint, you can do it in running fashion, you can learn how to rotate the rope twice for every one jump, etc. As you get more advanced, you will be able to make the 60 second sprint extremely intense. Also, if you want to take advantage of the fast heart rate and burn even more body fat, hit a treadmill or exercise bike for 20-30 minutes after your jump rope workout. Oh yeah…you might need a towel…you should be sweating like crazy!

Hit this Jump Rope Workout Hard and you will begin to see definition over your entire body!

What Are The Best All Natural Energy Supplements?

If you constantly feel tired and lethargic, finding the best all natural energy supplements can help boost your energy levels. However, since there are so many to choose from, it can be very difficult to pick only one supplement. Many energy boosters are more effective than others. So, you must find one that will really boost your energy levels. The supplements listed below are not harmful to your body and will not cause you to crash after a few hours like most artificial stimulants, drugs and sugar.

-Gotu Kola

Gotu kola is an herb that has been used by many people for thousands of years. This all natural supplement rejuvenates the brain cells and the nerves as well. This herb keeps you alert reduces the amount of exhaustion that you’ll may have. It circulates your blood as it strengthens your capillaries and veins. When you take this herb you’ll feel revived almost instantly.

-Ginko Biloba

Ginko biloba can help improve the circulation of blood throughout your body. This herb also has the capability to keep your mind and body more alert and focused. This supplement is probably one of the most effective energy boosters out there, as it goes into your blood vessels and increases the amount of oxygen that enters into your heart and brain. It’s an all natural herb that also protects your skin from all the free radicals in the environment.


Ashwagandha is a powerful supplement. It’s a very small, green herb that produces greenish flowers and red fruits. This herb is normally used by people who just came off a sickness and want to regain their energy levels, as it is most known to increase the energy levels in the body.


Kava-kava is an intoxicating pepper that helps minimize the tension in your muscles and also helps reduce anxiety. This is a natural supplement that has the power to help you fall asleep faster and sleep longer without the side effects of your body system slowing down, feeling lethargic and feeling mentally groggy. It is known to really boost your energy without experiencing any side effects whatsoever. This very powerful herb can make you feel more lively and upbeat, as well as helping you with overcoming your sleeping problems.

-Siberian Ginseng

Siberian ginseng has the very amazing power to also boost your energy. This all natural supplement helps enhance physical and mental endurance. For many years ginseng has helped people boost their energy, strengthen their muscles and also keep their liver strong. Siberian ginseng can also help you manage your stress by helping you relaxing your mind and body.

So, if you are frustrated and tired of having so little energy to do things in your day, then you should most definitely try one of these amazing and powerful natural energy boosters. They are a completely safe gift from nature and will not harm your body system whatsoever. These all natural energy supplements can help you increase the amount of energy that you have and as well as help improve the circulation of your blood throughout your body.

6 Opt in List Building Tips

A cornerstone of Online Marketing is List Building. While most of us recognize it as essential to making sales, it still remains a challenge for most. The fundamentals are well publicized and yet most Internet Marketers never achieve critical mass in this most important area of their business development.

The major reason to build an Opt-in list is to be able to market to a targeted audience with whom you’ve developed a relationship. This relationship can only be built over time and is solely dependent on the list owners providing valuable content to the subscriber.

New Internet Marketers often struggle with building their first opt-in list. The biggest reason aside from know-how is analysis   paralysis . Too much information can be as bad as not having enough information. Instead of just starting the process, there is the tendency to keep searching for the magic bullet.

Unfortunately it does not exist. While there are tools and tactics, every person who has built a large responsive opt-in list has started at the same point as the new marketer – ground zero.

Before you can begin building a list you need to have these basics in place.

– Some method of generating traffic…

– A Landing or “Squeeze” Page…

– And an auto-responder…

What follows are 6 practical opt-in list building tips that will get you started and help you stay on track in the long run.

1) Create a Unique Selling Proposition

According to Jay Abraham, a Unique Selling Proposition (USP) “is that distinct and appealing idea that sets you and your business, or practice, favorably apart from every other generic competitor. The long-term marketing and operational successes I help you achieve will, ultimately, be helped or hurt by the USP you decide upon.”

Your USP is how you distinguish your business from others.

2) Create an Opt-in Landing Page Also known as a “Squeeze Page,” the Landing Page has one purpose and that is to get the visitors name and email address. There are many types of landing pages and it will benefit you greatly to learn basic HTML. It’s better to design your own Opt-in Pages. The major advantage of designing your own Opt-In Landing Pages is flexibility. You can build several Landing Pages and test which one is the most effective. See resource box to get a Complimentary Landing Page Template.

3) Make It Easy To Join Tell the visitor why they should sign up (opt-in) and what they will get for doing so. Follow the K.I.S.S. method and don’t forget a strong “Call to Action.” Tell them what to do next. Sign Up Now! Act Now! Get Your FREE Report Here! Create a sense of urgency. Your objective is to get a name and email address and follow-up later. Offer a Free Gift, also known as an “Ethical Bribe” as an incentive. It can be a PLR eBook, a report, an audio file, a video so long as it offers value and relates to your USP.

4) Be sure to include a “Privacy Statement and Disclosure.” Here are a couple of sites that can help you with the wording. Free Privacy Policy Generator, and for Disclosure Statements, Having a Privacy Policy and Disclosure Statement increases the public’s feeling of security and makes the decision to opt-in to your list more likely.

5) No Risk Factor. Let people know they can opt-out at any time. People are averse to signing up for lists because (1) they don’t want to be spammed and (2) they can’t keep up with all the email. Just think about your own email inbox. Isn’t that why you have several email accounts to handle all the spam emails from other marketers? Simply remind your subscribers that they can unsubscribe at any time.

6) Your Marketing Funnel Begins With The Opt-in List. The objective of building an Opt-in List is to be making back-end sales. Your Opt-in List building page (Landing Page) should be the top of your marketing funnel. Once the visitor opts-in, your thank you page should be your first sales attempt. Rather than a generic, “Thank you for joining” message, send them to your Sales Page. Even if they don’t buy, you can follow-up with your auto responder. Create 7-10 email messages to be sent over the next 10-15 days. One system says the ratio should be 3/2 three content emails followed by 2 sales emails and so on. You’ll have to determine what’s best for your list. This is why testing is important. The more valuable content you provide the more trust will be developed. W.I.F.M., “What’s in it for me?” This is what’s on the customers mind. Show them what’s in it for them, help them solve their problems, and you’ll build a large list of faithful members, who will become customers for life.

Core Training Tips For Top Sports Performance

For the most explosive performance, you should define the ‘core’ muscle group as containing more than just the abdominal wall. To reap the real benefits of the true protection the core musculature promises, you should also add the obliques, spinal erectors, hip flexors and glutes. Spending time developing your core is smart because this muscle group will prevent you from getting hernias and save your lumbar discs from injury. Besides the importance of staying injury free, the core muscle group is responsible for all explosive power in both the weight room and the field/on the mat/in the cage. Its all inclusive role in virtually anything athletic gives credence to prioritizing it in every training program. The problem is most coaches and programs do not know how to train this muscle group properly for the best strength carry over into their particular sport and everyday life. With the wrong exercise selection and/or program set-up, you can waste tons of time and energy working your abs to death and barely doing anything more than keeping your mid-section fit but still leaving you with a pitifully weak core.

Many athletes brag how they do thousands of sit-ups and/or crunches every day. The fact is these exercises rarely do anything more than provide a bit more tone to your gut. To get the most power and stability from the core, use only exercises that have a strength carryover to the rest of the body. Bent leg exercises like these take the primary emphasis off the front abdominal wall and place it on the hip flexors. While training the hip flexors is a good idea, hundreds of reps all the time can lead to overtraining and eventually an imbalance. If the imbalance continues it can even lead to a postural spinal imbalance leading to further, more complicated issues and injuries. If you want a strong, healthy core, rarely practice abdominal exercises with bent legs. Choose exercises with straight legs for the best and most functional strength carry over. Examples of straight leg abdominal exercises include straight leg sit-ups, ab pull downs (using a cable machine/lat pull), leg raises, planks and hanging leg raises. If your exercise program doesn’t revolve around strengthening your core, you would be extremely wise to train your core directly at least once/week using these exercises.

Besides the wrong exercises, most trainers advocate high reps such as 20-30+ when performing abdominal work. This will only barely give you a fit mid-section but do nothing for enhancing your physical abilities. Remember what the core is used for… protection of your spine and organs while offering a base of explosive power for athletic movements. High rep work will not enhance this, however using light to moderate weights explosively for less reps will. To develop your core so it’s best fit for explosive power, provide resistance by holding weights or using bands and keep the reps in the 8-10 range for most of your training. For the best gains, keep records of how much weight you use and try to beat the numbers by volume/amount of weight each time you perform the exercise. Examples of good abdominal exercises with resistance include weighted straight leg sit-ups, incline straight leg sit-ups, leg raises with chains added to the ankles, weighted side bends and hanging leg raises with bands around the ankles (anchored to the floor).

Your core training should of course include plenty of work for the abdominal wall, but if you want the best stabilization and functional power, do more for your sides than your front. For real core strength, train the obliques twice and the abdominal wall once. Train the obliques with both side bends and twisting motions for both high and low reps however not more than 15 or less than 8. It’s also very smart to target the obliques with not only direct work but accessory lifts that heavily incorporate them. This includes one sided training like one legged squats, one arm overhead presses, one arm rows, one arm deadlifts and quite a few TRX exercises. Another great way to add functional strength to the core is by carrying heavy weights for a short distance. This is performed by carrying a heavy kettlebell, dumbbell or plate (more than 50 lbs.) at the chest level for 50-100 ft. Carrying weights with only one side is one of the best ways to train the obliques; these are called suitcase carries and performed exactly how they sound. Other great oblique exercises include heavy dumbbell side bends, handing side bends, offset bar bends (side bends with a squat bar offset on your back), anchored barbell work, twists with weights, med balls and hammers and wood choppers with cables or bands.

When you want improved performance, it’s important you keep your program varied with different exercises all the time. Performing the same exercise/rep scheme over and over again will only help a brand new beginner for a short period of time. Intermediate and advanced athletes must keep their training fresh by switching exercises all the time. Vary your program with different core exercises to give your system a hardiness for activity in every direction. Also include exercises to emphasize other posterior chain musculature like the glutes, lower back, upper back, traps and neck. These include kettle bell swings, adductor exercises, back raises, reverse hypers and tons of hamstring work with glute ham raises, good mornings and romainian dead lifts. Adding this emphasis to your program will greatly enhance your core work and ensure better carry over into other athletics.

Growing Taller – Let’s Deal With It Naturally

You’re looking around for a stool so that you can reach the box on top of the cupboard. A friend comes by, simply stretches his hand and gets it for you. You politely say thank you, but inside your heart you envy him. If only you had been as tall as him!

Although height does not undermine one’s abilities, it is regarded as an important aspect of an individual’s personality. It also plays on your confidence. This is one of the reasons there are so many height growth supplements and programs thriving successfully in the health and fitness market. While there is no harm relying on an external agent to help you increase height, it is not a necessity either because there are natural methods that you can apply to do the same; methods that won’t cost you a penny.

If you are eager to know how you can add inches naturally, you can continue reading.

Growing Taller Naturally

Diet, exercise and sleep are some of the natural factors that affect one’s height. Hence if you want to lengthen your appearance, you will have to reexamine these factors.

1. Sleep

Many guides consider exercise as the primary means to grow taller. It is true, but we give precedence to sleep. Why? The body regenerates its tissues when we rest or sleep. Also, the Human Growth Hormone (HGH) is synthesized during sleep. HGH is the hormone that regulates height in the body. A decrease in the production of HGH stunts growth. Hence, if you want to reach maximum height, you should sleep for minimum 8-10 hours daily. Try drift into sound sleep by creating a suitable environment.

2. Exercise

Being physically fit during your teen years is the best way to grow tall. Exercise can also help you grow tall beyond puberty up to 30 years. Stretching exercises are the most beneficial when it comes to increasing height. As a teen, you should take up games such as basketball, tennis or badminton or enroll at a swimming class. You can also skip daily for at least 30 minutes. These sports activities offer an intense, full-body exercise that not only elongates the spine and other bones but also builds muscle strength.

If you are looking at structured exercises, any expert would recommend a diverse range of stretches, bends and hanging exercises. These include the bow-down, the cat stretch, the side bends, the side twists, the super stretch, the cobra stretch, the bridge and basic leg and table stretches. Yoga is also a good system of exercise.

3. Correct Your Posture –

If you want to grow tall or at least want to look tall, you should maintain good posture. A hunched back or rounded shoulders often makes one look shorter than they actually are. Hence, you body should be properly aligned in the standing, sitting or sleeping position. If you have a faulty posture, correct it. Sit straight, do not slouch, walk with your shoulders straight, keep your chin high and use a pillow to support your head when you sleep.

4. Balanced Diet –

Finally, you cannot miss out on a balanced diet. You need to give your body proper nutrition if you want it to grow and develop in a healthy manner. Your diet should comprise vitamin D, vitamin B, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, zinc, magnesium and phosphorus in judicious amounts. Avoid carbonated drinks, junk foods, saturated fats and sugar-loaded foods. Do not drink alcohol or smoke because it stunts growth.

A Portable USB Hard Drive Buyers Guide

There are a variety of portable external USB hard drives in the market to choose from, and truthfully, most of them will be able to do exactly what you need them to do without any issues. There are, however, a few important things you should think of when choosing a portable hard drive. Inside of this article, I discuss (some tips I feel) tend to be the top things to consider when making your final decision about which hard drive to get.


The transfer speed of a hard disk drive is actually the key factor in how the hard drive performs, or in other words, how fast you’ll be able to transfer files back and forth to it. Considering that consumers utilize external drives to help them backup larger data which can include personal images, movies, as well as audio files, it is crucial that the specific hard disk drive you purchase is able to transfer large files quickly. Data transfer speeds are typically measured by megabits per second (mb/s) or gigabits per second (gb/s). The deciding key to consider at this point is whether you prefer to choose a hard disk drive that utilizes USB “SuperSpeed” 3.0 or the older legacy USB 2.0 connection. Transfer rates for USB 3.0 capable drives can be up to 3 x as quick as a USB 2.0 hard disk drive in real world use. Seeing that drives which use USB 3.0 are backwards compatible with USB 2.0 ports, I would suggest selecting a USB 3.0 equipped unit, allowing you to take advantage of the much quicker data transfer rates. Be aware that you will have to have a USB 3.0 interface on your system to benefit from the faster data transfer rates, though USB 3.0 ports have gotten a lot more common inside recent laptops or computers. (Data transfer rates for drives of comparable USB speed will vary somewhat from drive to drive, though the difference between the two is in fact minimal.) You can find more connection types also, such as FireWire, eSATA as well as the recent Thunderbolt connection, that are on the new macs, yet for the vast majority of customers we would suggest USB since it is the most wide-spread.

Storage size is the other aspect to consider in respect to overall performance. Portable drives can be bought in sizes as huge as 3TB’s, although the most favored size is 1TB, which will generally be substantial enough for your average buyer. A 500GB hard drive is another excellent size to go with as it also gives a considerable amount of storage space and at often around 30-40% less, over a comparable 1TB drive.

Important features

Probably the most crucial characteristic to keep in mind with a hard disk drive concerns safeguarding. Particularly, it is important to consider the amount of encryption and password protection that comes with a hard drive. Since, by their very nature, external hard drives are more likely to wind up being displaced and / or stolen when compared to a desktop hard disk drive, it is crucial that the individual maintain their data security. Because of this, I advise selecting a drive that offers file encryption and password protection. Moreover, several hard disks are preloaded with some additional software programs to handle things like periodic, automated backups. If you would like to use the drive in order for backing up your data, I recommend you go with a drive that provides backup software. Finally, examine the warranty plan on your drive. Most will include a common 2 year warranty, which is essential considering nearly all hard disks, despite type or manufacturer, have the potential to crash.

Design and style

In my opinion, one of the primary elements in deciding on which hard disk drive is right for buyers is going to be the external style of the drive. Due to the fact once you make a decision on what speed and capacity you’d like, you’ll realize that costs don’t vary a lot from drive to drive; meaning you might as well pick the one that you believe looks the best. Some designs will be more compact or lighter than others, some models are going to have distinct colors or finishes on the case, and a few designs will incorporate some form of shock or drop protection. (The very best of which will be the so-called ‘military spec or grade’ drives, that will generally withstand drops of several feet, while suffering no damage or loss of data.) In any case, it’s best to opt for a form factor which is most attractive to you since most portable hard drives will already have similar features.

To sum it up, choose a drive with a 1TB storage capacity, USB 3.0 and one that appeals to your eye, and you’ll be happy camper.

Help With Tinnitus – First You Need to Know What the Underlying Causes Are

When looking for help with tinnitus you need to keep in mind one very important fact: tinnitus is not a condition, it’s a symptom of another condition or conditions. So any help with tinnitus has to address these underlying conditions, not the symptoms of tinnitus themselves.

That’s why mainstream medication and audio maskers etc. have a poor record: nearly 93% of tinnitus suffers never get relief from their problem. And why so many victims are now looking at completely natural remedies to help with their tinnitus. You will discover what these underlying conditions are here.

The sounds of tinnitus that drive you mad vary from person to person; whistling, hissing, booming, knocking, ticking, clicking, whooshing, etc. And much depends on the cause of your tinnitus, i.e. the underlying condition(s).

When you, as the victim, are the only person to hear the sounds this is ‘subjective tinnitus’. When your doctor can also hear them (with a special audio instrument), this is known as ‘objective tinnitus’. Subjective tinnitus is much more common. Either way tinnitus can drive you insane, turning your whole life upside down. So, like millions of other victims around the world, you need help with your tinnitus.

But if these sounds are only the symptoms of some underlying problem, what are these problems? In general they are problems to do with ear damage, your health position and loud noises. For example, things such as inner ear infections / auditory nerve damage, noise-damaged hearing, head trauma, whiplash, meniere’s disease, otosclerosis, blocked eustachian tube, allergies, stress, anxiety, drugs, etc.

Where do you get help? Usually your doctor or other ear expert will put you on drugs such as antidepressants, antihistamines, anticonvulsants, cardiovascular and intravenous lidocaine. To help your tinnitus further, they may also suggest the use of hearing aids or audio maskers to try to ‘hide’ the noises. And you may be pointed in the direction of counselling and tinnitus support groups.

But these aren’t really addressing the underlying issues so that, as stated in the introduction, 93% of sufferers never get real relief, and are desperate for help with their tinnitus.

Which is why thousands around the world are turning to totally natural remedies to help their tinnitus. They are discovering remedies and techniques that they can use to improve their diet, improve their health, reduce stress and anxiety, etc. These are just some of the important areas that you will need to investigate and address in order to get proper relief from your tinnitus. A lot of work on your part, but it will be time well spent.

Sore Throat Remedy

The best way to cure a real sore throat in adults is using a gargle. Children are not able to gargle, so a throat compress or a homeopathic medicine is a better sore throat remedy for them.

If you do not see improvement from home remedies overnight, please visit your doctor, especially if you suspect strep throat. A real strep throat may have severe complications like inflammation of the kidneys or heart or joints.


Using gargles should bring improvement immediately, latest in one or two hours. There are loads of gargle recipes, but they have a few common ingredients like:

  • Cayenne Pepper
  • Lemon
  • Vinegar
  • Sea salt
  • Honey

May be the most effective sore throat remedy is using Cayenne Pepper for a

Hot and Spicy Gargle:

  • The most amazing and effective treatment is using 5 shakes of Cayenne Pepper (Capsicum frutescens) Powder in a cup of hot water (or herbal tea or saline solution or lemon juice) and gargle every 15 minutes with the spicy elixir. May swallow each time a tiny bit. Gargling with cayenne can cause a strong burning sensation of lips and tongue. Therefore is good keeping milk or yogurt in your mouth after gargling until the burning disappears.
  • If you do not have Cayenne pepper use 10-20 drops of Tabasco sauce in a glass of warm water, the effect will be the same.
  • If you do not have access to Cayenne or Tabasco, chili peppers, hot paprika or white pepper are similarly useful. All this pungent spices contain capsaicin, which dulls the pain and has anti-viral properties.
  • Ginger (Zingiber officinalis) tea is also a good choice. Simmer 10g grated fresh ginger root or ginger powder in a cup of water for ten minutes. Strain and give optionally fresh lemon juice and/or honey and/or a pinch of Cayenne pepper. Use as a gargle every 30 minutes.

CAUTION: Cayenne pepper is a natural blood thinner, do not take it before surgery or dental treatment!

Read about Throat Compresses for Sore Throat

Homeopathic Remedies

I want to share a very-very effective and well-proved remedy combination for the beginning of a strep throat or a really severe sore throat. Take alternately every 2-3 hours

  • Hepar sulphuris C12 and
  • Belladonna C30


Besides using gargles a fine, oil external throat massage can speed up the healing process. Add 2 drops each of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris), Sandalwood (Santalum album) and Myrrh (Commiphora molmol) essential oils to 1 tbsp of olive oil and massage the external neck area. Wrap a warm scarf around the neck afterwards.

If you are interested in more details about the treatment of sore throat, click here to learn more!